This study evaluated the remineralizing effect of a toothpaste containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler on demineralized enamel in situ. For this, 180 bovine enamel samples were demineralized by using a microcosm biofilm model for 3 days. Thereafter, the samples were randomly signed to 15 healthy volunteers and to 3 cross-over in situ phases corresponding to the following treatments: (1) toothpaste containing 1,500 ppm F as NaMFP (positive control, Colgate®Cavity Protection), (2) toothpaste containing 5% S-PRG filler (Shofu®), and (3) placebo toothpaste (negative control prepared by Shofu®). Four demineralized enamel blocks were fixed into each palatal appliance per phase. The volunteers wore the appliances for 5 days and were trained to brush their teeth 2 times for 2 min a day, while one drop of the toothpaste’s slurry (1:3) was dripped on each sample for the same period. The surface hardness and TMR analyses were done and analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey and t test (p < 0.05). S-PRG filler and Colgate® toothpastes were equally able to improve 2–2.5× enamel remineralization by the analysis of % surface hardness recovery. However, S-PRG toothpaste was the only one able to significantly improve ΔΔZ (the integrated mineral loss recovery: 1,489 ± 503 %vol.μm) compared to placebo (1,050 ± 467 %vol.μm), while Colgate® did not differ from placebo. No differences were seen between the groups with respect to ΔLD. S-PRG filler and Colgate® toothpastes show similar potential to remineralize the lesion surface. However, S-PRG toothpaste is better to recover mineral loss at the subsurface area.

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