This study evaluated the combination of a sugarcane cystatin (CaneCPI-5) and sodium fluoride (NaF) in acquired pellicle engineering for the prevention of dental erosion in vitro. Seventy-five human enamel specimens were prepared and divided into 5 treatment groups (n = 15/group): Deionized water (Control); Elmex™ (SnCl2/NaF/AmF); 0.1 mg/mL CaneCPI-5; 500 ppm NaF; and CaneCPI-5+NaF (Combination). The specimens were individually treated (200 μL; 2 min; 37°C), then incubated in human saliva (200 μL; 1 h, at 37°C) for acquired pellicle formation. Afterward, the specimens were submitted to an erosive challenge (1% citric acid [CR], pH 3.6, 10 mL, 2 min, 25 °C). This sequence was conducted 5 times. Percentage of surface microhardness change (%SMC), relative surface reflection intensity (rSRI), and calcium released to the CR were measured and analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). In general, all the treatments (SnCl2/NaF/AmF, CaneCPI-5, NaF, and Combination) significantly protected the enamel when compared the control group. Regarding %SMC and rSRI, the Combination was the most effective treatment, reducing the %SMC significantly (p < 0.01) when compared to all the other treatments, although this difference was not significant in the CR analysis. All treatments demonstrated a protective effect on enamel against dental erosion; however, the combination of CaneCPI-5 with NaF showed a greater protection.