This study evaluated the effect of experimental solutions containing plant extracts on bacterial species and enamel caries prevention. Microcosm biofilm was produced from human saliva mixed with McBain saliva (0.2% sucrose) on bovine enamel for 5 days (3 days under anaerobiosis and 2 days under aerobiosis) at 37°C. From the 2nd day, the following treatments were applied (1 × 60 s/day): Vochysia tucanorum (10 mg/mL); Myrcia bella (5 mg/mL); Matricaria chamomilla (80 mg/mL); Malva sylvestris, fluoride, and xylitol (Malvatricin Plus®); 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX, PerioGard®); and PBS (negative control). The medium pH was measured. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. Enamel demineralization was measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The data were compared by means of the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni, and ANOVA/Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The pH decreased after sucrose exposure; only CHX reestablished pH >5.5 by the last day. CHX also eliminated Lactobacillus spp., but the other treatments did not differ significantly from PBS. Malvatricin Plus® and CHX eliminated S. mutans, but the other treatments did not differ from PBS. Similar results were seen concerning the reduction of lesion depth and reflectivity. The experimental natural-extract solutions were ineffective against cariogenic bacteria and in preventing the development of enamel caries.

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