The present study evaluated fluoride (F) concentrations in saliva of toddlers after brushing with dentifrices containing different F concentrations, applied in different quantities, and estimated F intake from toothbrushing. The study comprised a double-blind, crossover protocol, in which toddlers (n = 18, 2–3 years old) were randomly assigned into six groups, according to possible combinations of dentifrices (0/550/1,100 ppm F, as NaF) and amounts (rice grain, pea size, and transverse technique). Volunteers used a F-free dentifrice during 1 week. On the 7th day, saliva samples were collected before (baseline), and at 5/15/30/60 min after toothbrushing. All dentifrice expectorated after brushing was collected. F concentrations (saliva and expectorate) were determined with an ion-specific electrode. Data were submitted to ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Fisher’s LSD or Student-Newman-Keuls’ tests (p<0.05). Brushing with 550 ppm F dentifrice (pea size or transversal technique) increased the area under the curve (AUC) at similar levels compared to 1,100 ppm F (rice grain). The highest AUC and salivary F at 5 min after brushing were achieved by 1,100 ppm F (pea size), followed by 550 ppm F (transversal technique). Regarding F intake, the highest values were observed for 550 ppm F (transversal technique), followed by 1,100 ppm F (pea size). It is possible to conclude that the amount of dentifrice and F concentration in the product significantly affected both salivary F concentrations and F intake during toothbrushing.

1.
Amaral
JG
,
Freire
IR
,
Valle-Neto
EF
,
Cunha
RF
,
Martinhon
CC
,
Delbem
AC
.
Longitudinal evaluation of fluoride levels in nails of 18-30-month-old children that were using toothpastes with 500 and 1100 μg F/g
.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
.
2014
Oct
;
42
(
5
):
412
9
.
[PubMed]
0301-5661
2.
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
.
Policy on use of fluoride
.
Pediatr Dent
.
2016
Oct
;
38
(
6
):
45
6
.
[PubMed]
1942-5473
3.
Burt
BA
.
The changing patterns of systemic fluoride intake
.
J Dent Res
.
1992
May
;
71
(
5
):
1228
37
.
[PubMed]
0022-0345
4.
Buzalaf
MA
.
Review of fluoride intake and appropriateness of current guidelines
.
Adv Dent Res
.
2018
Mar
;
29
(
2
):
157
66
.
[PubMed]
0895-9374
5.
Clarkson
J
,
Watt
RG
,
Rugg-Gunn
AJ
,
Pitiphat
W
,
Ettinger
RL
,
Horowitz
AM
, et al
Proceedings: 9th World Congress on Preventive Dentistry (WCPD): "Community Participation and Global Alliances for Lifelong Oral Health for All," Phuket, Thailand, September 7-10, 2009. Adv Dent Res.
2010
;22:2–30.
6.
Cunha-Correia
AS
,
Neto
AH
,
Pereira
AF
,
Aguiar
SM
,
Nakamune
AC
.
Enteral nutrition feeding alters antioxidant activity in unstimulated whole saliva composition of patients with neurological disorders
.
Res Dev Disabil
.
2014
Jun
;
35
(
6
):
1209
15
.
[PubMed]
0891-4222
7.
Dawes
C
.
Circadian rhythms in human salivary flow rate and composition
.
J Physiol
.
1972
Feb
;
220
(
3
):
529
45
.
[PubMed]
0022-3751
8.
de Almeida
BS
,
da Silva Cardoso
VE
,
Buzalaf
MA
.
Fluoride ingestion from toothpaste and diet in 1- to 3-year-old Brazilian children
.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
.
2007
Feb
;
35
(
1
):
53
63
.
[PubMed]
0301-5661
9.
Delbem
AC
,
Sassaki
KT
,
Vieira
AE
,
Rodrigues
E
,
Bergamaschi
M
,
Stock
SR
, et al
Comparison of methods for evaluating mineral loss: hardness versus synchrotron microcomputed tomography
.
Caries Res
.
2009
;
43
(
5
):
359
65
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
10.
DenBesten
P
,
Ko
HS
.
Fluoride levels in whole saliva of preschool children after brushing with 0.25 g (pea-sized) as compared to 1.0 g (full-brush) of a fluoride dentifrice
.
Pediatr Dent
.
1996
Jul-Aug
;
18
(
4
):
277
80
.
[PubMed]
0164-1263
11.
DenBesten
P
,
Li
W
.
Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis
.
Monogr Oral Sci
.
2011
;
22
:
81
96
.
[PubMed]
0077-0892
12.
European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
.
Guidelines on the use of fluoride in children: an EAPD policy document
.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent
.
2009
Sep
;
10
(
3
):
129
35
.
[PubMed]
1818-6300
13.
Frencken
JE
,
Sharma
P
,
Stenhouse
L
,
Green
D
,
Laverty
D
,
Dietrich
T
.
Global epidemiology of dental caries and severe periodontitis - a comprehensive review
.
J Clin Periodontol
.
2017
Mar
;
44
Suppl 18
:
S94
105
.
[PubMed]
0303-6979
14.
Gaugler
RW
,
Bruton
WF
.
Fluoride concentration in dental plaque of naval recruits with and without caries
.
Arch Oral Biol
.
1982
;
27
(
3
):
269
72
.
[PubMed]
0003-9969
15.
Hall
KB
,
Delbem
AC
,
Nagata
ME
,
Hosida
TY
,
de Moraes
FR
,
Danelon
M
, et al
Influence of the amount of dentifrice and fluoride concentrations on salivary fluoride levels in children
.
Pediatr Dent
.
2016
Oct
;
38
(
5
):
379
84
.
[PubMed]
1942-5473
16.
Ismail
AI
,
Pitts
NB
,
Tellez
M
,
Banerjee
A
,
Deery
C
,
Douglas
G
, et al;
Authors of International Caries Classification and Management System (ICCMS)
.
The international caries classification and management system (ICCMSTM) an example of a caries management pathway
.
BMC Oral Health
.
2015
;
15
(
S1
Suppl 1
):
S9
.
[PubMed]
1472-6831
17.
Kobayashi
CA
,
Belini
MR
,
Italiani
FM
,
Pauleto
AR
,
Araújo
JJ
,
Tessarolli
V
, et al
Factors influencing fluoride ingestion from dentifrice by children
.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
.
2011
Oct
;
39
(
5
):
426
32
.
[PubMed]
0301-5661
18.
Moimaz
SA
,
Saliba
O
,
Chiba
FY
,
Sumida
DH
,
Garbin
CA
,
Saliba
NA
.
Fluoride concentration in public water supply: 72 months of analysis
.
Braz Dent J
.
2012
;
23
(
4
):
451
6
.
[PubMed]
0103-6440
19.
Moretto
MJ
,
Magalhães
AC
,
Sassaki
KT
,
Delbem
AC
,
Martinhon
CC
.
Effect of different fluoride concentrations of experimental dentifrices on enamel erosion and abrasion
.
Caries Res
.
2010
;
44
(
2
):
135
40
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
20.
Nazzal
H
,
Duggal
MS
,
Kowash
MB
,
Kang
J
,
Toumba
KJ
.
Comparison of residual salivary fluoride retention using amine fluoride toothpastes in caries-free and caries-prone children
.
Eur Arch Paediatr Dent
.
2016
Jun
;
17
(
3
):
165
9
.
[PubMed]
1818-6300
21.
Nobre dos Santos
M
,
Melo dos Santos
L
,
Francisco
SB
,
Cury
JA
.
Relationship among dental plaque composition, daily sugar exposure and caries in the primary dentition
.
Caries Res
.
2002
Sep-Oct
;
36
(
5
):
347
52
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
22.
Paiva
MF
,
Delbem
AC
,
Danelon
M
,
Nagata
ME
,
Moraes
FR
,
Coclete
GE
, et al
Fluoride concentration and amount of dentifrice influence enamel demineralization in situ
.
J Dent
.
2017
Nov
;
66
:
18
22
.
[PubMed]
0300-5712
23.
Pessan
JP
,
Alves
KM
,
Ramires
I
,
Taga
MF
,
Sampaio
FC
,
Whitford
GM
, et al
Effects of regular and low-fluoride dentifrices on plaque fluoride
.
J Dent Res
.
2010
Oct
;
89
(
10
):
1106
10
.
[PubMed]
0022-0345
24.
Pessan
JP
,
Silva
SM
,
Lauris
JR
,
Sampaio
FC
,
Whitford
GM
,
Buzalaf
MA
.
Fluoride uptake by plaque from water and from dentifrice
.
J Dent Res
.
2008
May
;
87
(
5
):
461
5
.
[PubMed]
0022-0345
25.
Santos
AP
,
Oliveira
BH
,
Nadanovsky
P
.
Effects of low and standard fluoride toothpastes on caries and fluorosis: systematic review and meta-analysis
.
Caries Res
.
2013
;
47
(
5
):
382
90
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
26.
Silva
PV
,
Troiano
JA
,
Nakamune
AC
,
Pessan
JP
,
Antoniali
C
.
Increased activity of the antioxidants systems modulate the oxidative stress in saliva of toddlers with early childhood caries
.
Arch Oral Biol
.
2016
Oct
;
70
:
62
6
.
[PubMed]
0003-9969
27.
Taves
DR
.
Separation of fluoride by rapid diffusion using hexamethyldisiloxane
.
Talanta
.
1968
Sep
;
15
(
9
):
969
74
.
[PubMed]
0039-9140
28.
Vogel
GL
,
Mao
Y
,
Chow
LC
,
Proskin
HM
.
Fluoride in plaque fluid, plaque, and saliva measured for 2 hours after a sodium fluoride monofluorophosphate rinse
.
Caries Res
.
2000
Sep-Oct
;
34
(
5
):
404
11
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
29.
Walsh
T
,
Worthington
HV
,
Glenny
AM
,
Marinho
VC
,
Jeroncic
A
.
Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries
.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
.
2019
Mar
;
3
:
CD007868
.
[PubMed]
1469-493X
30.
Whitford
GM
.
The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride
.
Monogr Oral Sci
.
1996
;
16 Rev 2
:
1
153
.
[PubMed]
0077-0892
31.
Zero
DT
,
Creeth
JE
,
Bosma
ML
,
Butler
A
,
Guibert
RG
,
Karwal
R
, et al
The effect of brushing time and dentifrice quantity on fluoride delivery in vivo and enamel surface microhardness in situ
.
Caries Res
.
2010
;
44
(
2
):
90
100
.
[PubMed]
0008-6568
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.