Dental erosive wear is a multifactorial condition of high prevalence. Nowadays, there is an emphasis on discovering individual genetic predisposition for the development of this condition. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins expressed in salivary glands, as well as during tooth development. They are involved in salivary secretion and composition and linked to physiological protection of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between different dental erosive wear phenotypes, AQP genes, and selected environmental factors. Data from 705 dental patients were used to investigate the association between dental erosive wear phenotypes and AQPs’ single-nucleotide variants. Phenotypes were further analyzed considering diet and oral hygiene data, using logistic regression analysis, as implemented in PLINK, with the assumption that dental erosive wear is a complex gene-environment model. Associations were found between severe erosive tooth wear and rs2878771 (AQP2) for the genotypic (p = 0.02) and dominant (p = 0.03) models, and rs3736309 (AQP5) for the allelic model (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analyses, after implementing the Bonferroni correction, showed that several significant associations were present when covariates were included, suggesting that a strong environmental component is present. Our results show that dental erosive wear establishes under a gene-environmental complex model.