Background: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) acts as a salivary biomimetic that provides bioavailable calcium and phosphate ions to augment fluoride-mediated remineralisation of early caries lesions. However, there are indications that it may also have beneficial ecological effects on the oral microbiome. Objective: This in vitro study investigated whether CPP-ACP could influence microbial counts, acidogenicity, and the relative abundance of specific caries- and health-associated bacterial -species in polymicrobial biofilms. Methods: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated every 12 h with 2% CPP-ACP or vehicle control. Colony forming units (CFUs) and acidogenicity were estimated from the treated biofilms. Microbial ecological effects of CPP-ACP were assessed based on the relative abundance of 14 specific caries- and health-associated -bacterial species using a real-time quantitative PCR assay. -Results: CPP-ACP-treated biofilms showed relatively modest, but significant, reductions in microbial CFUs (21% reduction, p = 0.008) and acidogenicity (33% reduction, p < 0.001), compared to the control-treated biofilms. The CPP-ACP treated biofilms also exhibited significantly lower bacterial loads of cariogenic Scardovia wiggsiae (fold change 0.017, p < 0.001) and Prevotella denticola(fold change 0.005, p < 0.001), and higher bacterial loads of commensal Streptococcus sanguinis(fold change 30.22, p < 0.001), S. mitis/oralis(fold change 9.66, p = 0.012), and S.salivarius/thermophilus(fold change 89.35, p < 0.001) than the control-treated biofilms. Conclusions: The results indicate that CPP-ACP has virulence-attenuating attributes that can influence a beneficial microbial ecological change in the biofilm.

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