Aims: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, for patients with dental caries, the Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for Oral Health (IPQ-R-OH) has 7 dimensions, including personal and treatment control, timeline-acute/chronic and timeline-cyclical, illness coherence, consequences, and emotional representations. Methods: A Spanish adaptation of the IPQ-R, with a self-reported 38-item scale, was developed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using data from 520 patients with dental caries attending the Dental Clinic at Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, Pasto, Colombia. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed 7 dimensions with 36 items (2 items were removed because of poor factor loadings or discriminant ability). The internal consistency coefficients of each factor ranged from 0.72 to 0.91, and all item loadings were >0.52. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 7-factor model with 36 items had superior fit compared to the 38-item original model: χ2 = 1,784.291 (df = 573, p < 0.001); nonnormal fit index = 0.941; comparative fit index = 0.946; root mean square error of approximation = 0.062 (90% CI = 0.057-0.066); standardized root mean square residual = 0.072; and Akaike information criterion = 638.291. Control (integrated by items from personal control, treatment control, and timeline-acute factors) and hopelessness (PC15 and PC17) were the 2 reconfigured factors that were identified. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the modified 36-item model has satisfactory reliability and construct factorial validity; therefore, it could be a valuable instrument in the screening of illness perceptions in oral health.

Abubakari A, Jones M, Lauder W, Kirk A, Devendra D, Anderson J: Psychometric properties of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire: factor structure and reliability among African-origin populations with type 2 diabetes. Int J Nurs Stud 2012;49:672-681.
Ashley L, Smith A, Keding A, Jones HV, Wright P: Psychometric evaluation of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in cancer patients: confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. J Psychosom Res 2013;75:556-562.
Atchison KA, Dubin LF: Understanding health behavior and perceptions. Dent Clin North Am 2003;47:21-39.
Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB: Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2000;25:3186-3191.
Borge CR, Moum T, Puline Lein M, Austegard EL, Wahl AK: Illness perception in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Scand J Psychol 2014;55:456-463.
Brink E, Alsén P, Cliffordson C: Validation of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in a sample of persons recovering from myocardial infarction - the Swedish version. Scand J Psychol 2011;52:573-579.
Brown TA: Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research, ed 2. New York, Guilford, 2006, p 462.
Brukiene V, Aleksejūniene J: An overview of oral health promotion in adolescents. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19:163-171.
Cabassa L, Lagomasino I, Dwight-Johnson M, Hansen M, Xie B: Measuring Latinos' perceptions of depression: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Illness Perception Questionnaire. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2008;14:377-384.
Carounanidy U, Sathyanarayanan R: Dental caries - a complete changeover (Part I). J Conserv Dent 2009;12:46-54.
Chaboyer W, Lee B, Wallis M, Chien C: Taiwanese translation and psychometric testing of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for patients with traumatic injury. J Clin Nurs 2012;21:3466-3474.
Chen S, Tsai J, Lee W: Psychometric validation of the Chinese version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for patients with hypertension. J Adv Nurs 2008;64:524-534.
Chilcot J, Norton S, Wellsted S, Farrington K: The factor structure of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) in end-stage renal disease patients. Psychol Health Med 2012;17:578-588.
Dempster M, McCorry NK: The factor structure of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire in a population of esophageal cancer survivors. Psychooncology 2012;21:524-530.
DeVellis RF, Robert F: Scale Development: Theory and Applications, ed 3. Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2012, p 216.
Gómez-de-Regil L: Causal attribution and illness perception: a cross-sectional study in Mexican patients with psychosis. ScientificWorldJournal 2014;2014:969867.
Honkala E: Promotion with children and adolescents; in Schou L, Blinkhorn AS (eds): Oral Health Promotion. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp 168-187.
Hooper D, Coughlan J, Mullen M: Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electron J Bus Res Methods 2008;6:53-60.
Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ, IPQ-R) (accessed Feb 11, 2014).
Kim Y, Pavlish C, Evangelista LS, Kopple JD, Phillips LR: Racial/ethnic differences in illness perceptions in minority patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Nephrol Nurs J 2012;39:39-49.
Krauskopf K, Federman AD, Kale MS, Sigel KM, Martynenko M, O'Conor R, et al: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease illness and medication beliefs are associated with medication adherence. COPD 2015;12:151-164.
Lau RR, Hartman KA: Common sense representations of common illnesses. Health Psychol 1983;2:167-185.
Leventhal H, Benyamini Y, Brownlee S, Diefenbach M, Leventhal E, Patrick-Miller L, et al: Illness representations: theoretical foundations; in Petrie KJ, Weinman J (eds): Perceptions of Health and Illness: Current Research and Applications. Amsterdam, Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997, pp 19-45.
Leventhal H, Leventhal EA, Cameron L: Representations, procedures and affect in illness self-regulation: a perceptual-cognitive model; in Baum A, Revenson T, Singer J (eds): Handbook of Health Psychology. New York, Erlbaum, 2001, pp 19-47.
Leventhal H, Zimmerman R, Gutmann M: Compliance: a self-regulation perspective; in Gentry WD (ed): Handbook of Behavioral Medicine. New York, Guilford, 1984, pp 369-436.
Leysen M, Nijs J, Meeus M, Paul van Wilgen C, Struyf F, Vermandel A, et al: Clinimetric properties of Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R) and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) in patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review. Man Ther 2015;20:10-17.
Mo P, Lau J, Cheng K, Mak W, Gu J, Wu A, et al: Investigating the factor structure of the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised for substance dependence among injecting drug users in China. Drug Alcohol Depend 2015;148:195-202.
Moss-Morris R, Weinman J, Petrie KJ, Horne R, Cameron L, Buick D: The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychol Health 2002;17:1-16.
Nicholls E, Hill S, Foster N: Musculoskeletal pain illness perceptions: factor structure of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire-Revised. Psychol Health 2013;28:84-102.
Paulhus D, Vazire S: The self-report method; in Robins RW, Fraley RC, Krueger RF (eds): Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology. New York, Guilford, 2007, pp 224-239.
Pesut DP, Bursuc BN, Bulajic MV, Solovic I, Kruczak K, Duarte R, et al: Illness perception in tuberculosis by implementation of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - a TBNET study. Springerplus 2014;3:664.
Scharloo M, Baatenburg de Jong RJ, Langeveld TPM, van Velzen-Verkaik E, Doorn-op den Akker MM, Kaptein AA: Illness cognitions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: predicting quality of life outcome. Support Care Cancer 2010;18:1137-1145.
Weinman J, Petrie KJ, Moss-Morris R, Horne R: The Illness Perception Questionnaire: a new method for assessing the cognitive representation of illness. Psychol Health 1996;11:431-445.
Wittkowski A, Richards H, Williams J, Main C: Factor analysis of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire in adults with atopic dermatitis. Psychol Health Med 2008;13:346-359.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.