Aim: We analyzed the VDR Taq I (rs731236) gene polymorphism in children with and those without dental caries. Methods: A total of 388 subjects, 153 caries-free (with decayed/missing/filled teeth [DMFT] = 0) and 235 children with dental caries (DMFT ≥1), were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Results: Although no significant differences in VDR Taq I allele and genotype frequencies between caries-free and caries-affected children were detected, a significant association between this polymorphism and gingivitis was found (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In contrast to previous studies from China and Turkey, the VDR Taq I gene variant cannot be used as a marker for identification of Czech children with increased dental caries risk.

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