Objective: To assess the effect of daily consumption of erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol candies on caries development in mixed dentition during a 3-year intervention and 3 years after the intervention. Methods: 485 Estonian first- and second-grade primary school children participated. Children were randomly allocated to an erythritol, xylitol, or sorbitol (control) group. Polyol-containing candies were administered on school days with a daily polyol consumption of 3 × 2.5 g. Yearly, caries development was assessed by calibrated dentists using the ICDAS criteria. Six years after initiation of the study and 3 years after cessation of daily polyol consumption, 420 participants were re-examined to identify potential long-term effects of polyol consumption. Survival curves were generated at the end of the intervention period and 3 years after intervention. The model included age of the subjects, schools, tooth surface ages and years of surface exposure to intervention. ICDAS scoring system-based events included enamel/dentin caries development, dentin caries development, increase in caries score, and dentist intervention. Results: At the end of the intervention, time to enamel/dentin caries development, dentin caries development, increase in caries score, and dentist intervention were significantly longer in the erythritol group as compared to the sorbitol group. Except for increase in caries score, all effects persisted 3 years after cessation of daily polyol consumption. Conclusions: A caries-preventive effect of 3-year erythritol consumption as compared to sorbitol was established in children with mixed dentition. The effect persisted up to 3 years after the end of the intervention.

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