This study analysed in vitro the effect of milk against dental erosion, considering three factors: the type of milk (bovine whole/fat-free), the presence of different fluoride concentrations and the time of application (before/after erosive challenge). Bovine enamel (n = 15/group) and root dentine (n = 12/group) specimens were submitted to the following treatments: after the first erosive challenge - 0.9% NaCl solution (negative control), whole milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, fat-free milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, and 0.05% NaF solution (positive control); before the first erosive challenge - whole milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, fat-free milk with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm F, and 0.05% NaF solution (positive control). Specimens were submitted to demineralisation-remineralisation regimes 4 times/day for 5 days. The response variables were enamel and dentine loss (in micrometres). Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (p < 0.05). For enamel, whole milk containing 10 ppm F, applied before the erosive challenge, was the most protective treatment, but with no significant difference compared with the same treatment carried out after the erosive challenge. For dentine, whole fluoridated milk (all concentrations, after), fat-free 10 ppm F milk (after, before) and whole milk with or without F (except 2.5 ppm F, all before) significantly reduced dentine erosion. It seems that the presence of fluoride, especially at 10 ppm, is the most important factor in reducing dental erosion.

Aimutis WR: Bioactive properties of milk proteins with particular focus on anticariogenesis. J Nutr 2004;134:989S-995S.
Arnold WH, Heidt BA, Kuntz S, Naumova EA: Effects of fluoridated milk on root dentin remineralization. PLoS One 2014;9:e104327.
Banoczy J, Rugg-Gunn A, Woodward M: Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Acta Med Acad 2013;42:156-167.
Buzalaf MA, Levy SM: Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis. Monogr Oral Sci 2011;22:1-19.
Buzalaf MA, Hannas AR, Kato MT: Saliva and dental erosion. J Appl Oral Sci 2012;20:493-502.
Cheaib Z, Lussi A: Impact of acquired enamel pellicle modification on initial dental erosion. Caries Res 2011;45:107-112.
Ganss C, Klimek J, Starck C: Quantitative analysis of the impact of the organic matrix on the fluoride effect on erosion progression in human dentine using longitudinal microradiography. Arch Oral Biol 2004;49:931-935.
Ganss C, Lussi A, Sommer N, Klimek J, Schlueter N: Efficacy of fluoride compounds and stannous chloride as erosion inhibitors in dentine. Caries Res 2010;44:248-252.
Gedalia I, Dakuar A, Shapira L, Lewinstein I, Goultschin J, Rahamim E: Enamel softening with Coca-Cola and rehardening with milk or saliva. Am J Dent 1991a;4:120-122.
Gedalia I, Ionat-Bendat D, Ben-Mosheh S, Shapira L: Tooth enamel softening with a cola type drink and rehardening with hard cheese or stimulated saliva in situ. J Oral Rehabil 1991b;18:501-506.
Giacaman RA, Munoz MJ, Ccahuana-Vasquez RA, Munoz-Sandoval C, Cury JA: Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel and root dentin demineralization evaluated by a biofilm caries model. Caries Res 2012;46:460-466.
Imamura Y: Treatment of school meals with sodium fluoride as a means of preventing tooth decay. J Oral Dis Acad 1959;26:180-199.
Kato M, Bolanho B, Zarella B, Salo T, Tjäderhane L, Buzalaf M: Sodium fluoride inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9. J Dent Res 2014;93:74-77.
Klimek J, Hellwig E, Ahrens G: Fluoride taken up by plaque, by the underlying enamel and by clean enamel from three fluoride compounds in vitro. Caries Res 1982;16:156-161.
Li H, Zou Y, Ding G: Dietary factors associated with dental erosion: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2012;7:e42626.
Lippert F, Martinez-Mier EA, Zero DT: An in situ caries study on the interplay between fluoride dose and concentration in milk. J Dent 2014;42:883-890.
Lussi A: Erosive tooth wear - a multifactorial condition of growing concern and increasing knowledge. Monogr Oral Sci 2006;20:1-8.
Magalhães AC, Levy FM, Souza BM, Cardoso CA, Cassiano LP, Pessan JP, Buzalaf MA: Inhibition of tooth erosion by milk containing different fluoride concentrations: an in vitro study. J Dent 2014;42:498-502.
Malinowski M, Duggal MS, Strafford SM, Toumba KJ: The effect of varying concentrations of fluoridated milk on enamel remineralisation in vitro. Caries Res 2012a;46:555-560.
Malinowski M, Duggal MS, Strafford SM, Toumba KJ: The effect on dental enamel of varying concentrations of fluoridated milk with a cariogenic challenge in situ. J Dent 2012b;40:929-933.
Manaf ZA, Lee MT, Ali NH, Samynathan S, Jie YP, Ismail NH, Bibiana Hui Ying Y, Wei Seng Y, Yahya NA: Relationship between food habits and tooth erosion occurrence in Malaysian university students. Malays J Med Sci 2012;19:56-66.
Merritt J, Qi F, Shi W: Milk helps build strong teeth and promotes oral health. J Calif Dent Assoc 2006;34:361-366.
Nahas Pires Correa MS, Nahas Pires Correa F, Nahas Pires Correa JP, Murakami C, Mendes FM: Prevalence and associated factors of dental erosion in children and adolescents of a private dental practice. Int J Paediatr Dent 2011;21:451-458.
Nongonierma AB, Fitzgerald RJ: Biofunctional properties of caseinophosphopeptides in the oral cavity. Caries Res 2012;46:234-267.
Ongtenco KL, Anthonappa RP, Itthagarun A, King NM, Lalloo R, Nair RG: Remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions using fluoridated milk in vitro. Acta Odontol Scand 2014;72:737-744.
Rugg-Gunn AJ: Nutrition, diet and dental public health. Community Dent Health 1993;10(suppl 2):47-56.
Rusoff LL, Konikoff BS, Frye JB Jr, Johnston JE, Frye WW: Fluoride addition to milk and its effect on dental caries in school children. Am J Clin Nutr 1962;11:94-101.
Salas MM, Nascimento GG, Vargas-Ferreira F, Tarquinio SB, Huysmans MC, Demarco FF: Diet influenced tooth erosion prevalence in children and adolescents: results of a meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Dent 2015;43:865-875.
Sampaio FC, Levy SM: Systemic fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci 2011;22:133-145.
Stephen KW, Boyle IT, Campbell D, McNee S, Boyle P: Five-year double-blind fluoridated milk study in Scotland. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1984;12:223-229.
Wiegand A, Attin T: Randomised in situ trial on the effect of milk and CPP-ACP on dental erosion. J Dent 2014;42:1210-1215.
Wiegand A, Bliggenstorfer S, Magalhães AC, Sener B, Attin T: Impact of the in situ formed salivary pellicle on enamel and dentine erosion induced by different acids. Acta Odontol Scand 2008;66:225-230.
Yeung CA, Hitchings JL, Macfarlane TV, Threlfall AG, Tickle M, Glenny AM: Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;3:CD003876.
Ziegler E: Milk fluorination in prophylaxis of dental caries. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1953;83:723-724.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.