Path difference measurements were recorded in sound and carious enamel both before and after treatment with dimethyl-formamide, xylol and the enzyme pronase. It would appear that significant changes are produced after such treatment. Imbibition experiments with water and Thoulet’s solution show that the enamel becomes more accessible to imbibition fluids without necessarily being demineralized. Quantitative work in histopathologic studies is, therefore, influenced to a significant degree. Imbibition with Thoulet’s solutions having refractive indices higher than 1.623 indicate that the intrinsic birefringence of enamel apatite is higher than has been generally presumed.

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