Objective: Dental caries is one of the most frequent multifactorial diseases. Among the numerous factors influencing the risk of caries, genetics plays a substantial role, with heritability ranging from 40 to 60%. Gene variants affecting taste preference and glucose transport were recently associated with caries risk. The aim of this study was to analyze two common polymorphisms in the sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2) and glucose transporter (GLUT2) genes in children with dental caries and healthy controls in the Czech population. Methods: A total of 637 unrelated Caucasian children, aged 11-13 years, were included in this case-control study. One hundred and fifty-five subjects were caries-free (with decayed/missing/filled teeth, DMFT = 0) and 482 children were caries-affected (DMFT ≥ 1). The TAS1R2 (Ile191Val, rs35874116) and GLUT2 (Thr110Ile, rs5400) genotypes were determined using the 5′ nuclease TaqMan® assay for allelic discrimination. Results: Compared with subjects with the common Thr allele, carriers of the Ile allele of GLUT2 had significantly more frequently dental caries (p < 0.05, OR = 1.639, 95% CI: 1.089-2.466). Similarly, children with the Val allele for the TAS1R2 Ile191Val polymorphism were more frequently affected by caries than children who carried the Ile allele (p < 0.05, OR = 1.413, 95% CI: 1.014-1.969). In contrast, no significant associations between GLUT2 and/or TAS1R2 polymorphisms and fillings were found, but allele frequencies of the TAS1R2 variant were marginally significantly different between children with DMFT = 0 and DMFT ≥1 (p = 0.053, OR = 1.339, 95% CI: 0.996-1.799). However, no significant interaction between both genes and risk of dental caries was found. Conclusions: In conclusion, GLUT2 and TASR1 polymorphisms may influence the risk of caries in the Czech population.

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