Dental erosive wear is a multifactorial condition that is greatly affected by environmental factors. So far, no study has investigated how dental erosive wear is influenced by variations in enamel formation genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate polymorphisms in genes involved in enamel formation and their influence on enamel susceptibility to dental erosion. DNA samples were collected from 795 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-18 years. Five single-nucleotide polymorphism markers were genotyped in selected candidate genes (ameloblastin, amelogenin, enamelin, tuftelin 1 and tuftelin interacting protein 11), reported to influence enamel formation. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared within two patient groups with dental erosions; all participants with dental erosion and only those with severe dental erosion (erosion extending into dentine). Overrepresentation of the G allele of the enamelin marker was seen in the erosion group compared to the unaffected group (p = 0.047). When erosion severity was considered, statistical significant difference in allele frequency was observed for amelogenin, with the C allele suggesting a protective role (p = 0.02). A suggestive overrepresentation of the TT genotype of the amelogenin marker was also seen in cases with severe erosion (p = 0.049) when compared to cases with no dentine erosion. Amelogenin was also associated with severe erosion in the recessive model; the TT genotype was significantly more frequent in the affected group than in the unaffected group (p = 0.01). The present study suggests that polymorphisms in enamel formation genes are statistically associated with an individual's susceptibility to dental erosive wear.

Al-Dlaigan YH, Shaw L, Smith A: Dental erosion in a group of British 14-year-old school children. Part II: influence of dietary intake. Br Dent J 2001;190:258-261.
Aldred MJ, Crawford PJ, Roberts E, Thomas NS: Identification of a nonsense mutation in the amelogenin gene (AMELX) in a family with X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH1). Hum Genet 1992;90:413-416.
Bardow A, Moe D, Nyvad B, Nauntofte B: The buffer capacity and buffer systems of human whole saliva measured without loss of CO2. Arch Oral Biol 2000;45:1-12.
Bartlett DW, Coward PY: Comparison of the erosive potential of gastric juice and a carbonated drink in vitro. J Oral Rehabil 2001;28:1045-1047.
Bartlett DW, Lussi A, West NX, Bouchard P, Sanz M, Bourgeois D: Prevalence of tooth wear on buccal and lingual surfaces and possible risk factors in young European adults. J Dent 2013;41:1007-1013.
Boraas JC, Messer LB, Till MJ: A genetic contribution to dental caries, occlusion, and morphology as demonstrated by twins reared apart. J Dent Res 1988;67:1150-1155.
Bretz WA, Corby PM, Hart TC, Costa S, Coelho MQ, Weyant RJ, Robinson M, Schork NJ: Dental caries and microbial acid production in twins. Caries Res 2005;39:168-172.
Conry JP, Messer LB, Boraas JC, Aeppli DP, Bouchard TJ Jr: Dental caries and treatment characteristics in human twins reared apart. Arch Oral Biol 1993;38:937-943.
Coxon TL, Brook AH, Barron MJ, Smith RN: Phenotype-genotype correlations in mouse models of amelogenesis imperfecta caused by Amelx and Enam mutations. Cells Tissues Organs 2012;196:420-430.
Deeley K, Letra A, Rose EK, Brandon CA, Resick JM, Marazita ML, Vieira AR: Possible association of amelogenin to high caries experience in a Guatemalan-Mayan population. Caries Res 2008;42:8-13.
El Aidi H, Bronkhorst EM, Huysmans MC, Truin GJ: Multifactorial analysis of factors associated with the incidence and progression of erosive tooth wear. Caries Res 2011;45:303-312.
Emodi-Perlman A, Yoffe T, Rosenberg N, Eli I, Alter Z, Winocur E: Prevalence of psychologic, dental, and temporomandibular signs and symptoms among chronic eating disorders patients: a comparative control study. J Orofac Pain 2008;22:201-208.
Frydrych AM, Davies GR, McDermott BM: Eating disorders and oral health: a review of the literature. Aust Dent J 2005;50:6-15; quiz 56.
Ganss C: How valid are current diagnostic criteria for dental erosion? Clin Oral Investig 2008;12(suppl 1):S41-S49.
Ganss C, Klimek J, Giese K: Dental erosion in children and adolescents - a cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation using study models. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001;29:264-271.
Hara AT: Biological factors; in Lussi A (ed): Dental erosion: from diagnosis to therapy. Basel, Karger, 2006, vol 20, pp 88-99.
Hermont AP, Pordeus IA, Paiva SM, Abreu MH, Auad SM: Eating disorder risk behavior and dental implications among adolescents. Int J Eat Disord 2013;46:677-683.
Hu JC, Hu Y, Lu Y, Smith CE, Lertlam R, Wright JT, Suggs C, McKee MD, Beniash E, Kabir ME, Simmer JP: Enamelin is critical for ameloblast integrity and enamel ultrastructure formation. PLoS One 2014;9:e89303.
Hunt HR, Hoppert CA, Erwin WG: Inheritance of susceptibility to caries in albino rats (Mus norvegicus). J Dent Res 1944;22:385-401.
Jaeggi T, Lussi A: Prevalence, incidence and distribution of erosion. Monogr Oral Sci 2006;20:44-65.
Jensdottir T, Nauntofte B, Buchwald C, Bardow A: Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition. Caries Res 2005;39:468-474.
Jeremias F, Koruyucu M, Kuchler EC, Bayram M, Tuna EB, Deeley K, Pierri RA, Souza JF, Fragelli CM, Paschoal MA, Gencay K, Seymen F, Caminaga RM, dos Santos-Pinto L, Vieira AR: Genes expressed in dental enamel development are associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization. Arch Oral Biol 2013;58:1434-1442.
Johansson AK, Lingstrom P, Birkhed D: Comparison of factors potentially related to the occurrence of dental erosion in high- and low-erosion groups. Eur J Oral Sci 2002;110:204-211.
Klein H: The family and dental disease; dental disease (DMF) experience in parents and offspring. J Am Dent Assoc 1946;33:735-743.
Klein H, Palmer CE: Dental caries in brothers and sisters of immune and susceptible children. Milbank Mem Fund Q 1940;18:67-82.
Lagerstrom M, Dahl N, Nakahori Y, Nakagome Y, Backman B, Landegren U, Pettersson U: A deletion in the amelogenin gene (AMG) causes X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH1). Genomics 1991;10:971-975.
Larsen MJ, Poulsen S, Hansen I: Erosion of the teeth: prevalence and distribution in a group of Danish school children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2005;6:44-47.
Liu H, Deng H, Cao CF, Ono H: Genetic analysis of dental traits in 82 pairs of female-female twins. Chin J Dent Res 1998;1:12-16.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T: Chemical factors. Monogr Oral Sci 2006;20:77-87.
Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Zero D: The role of diet in the aetiology of dental erosion. Caries Res 2004;38(suppl 1):34-44.
Meredith RW, Gatesy J, Murphy WJ, Ryder OA, Springer MS: Molecular decay of the tooth gene Enamelin (ENAM) mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals. PLoS Genetics 2009;5:e1000634.
Milosevic A, Dawson LJ: Salivary factors in vomiting bulimics with and without pathological tooth wear. Caries Res 1996;30:361-366.
Mulic A, Skudutyte-Rysstad R, Tveit AB, Skaare AB: Risk indicators for dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway. Eur J Oral Sci 2012;120:531-538.
Mulic A, Tveit AB, Hove LH, Skaare AB: Dental erosive wear among Norwegian wine tasters. Acta Odontol Scand 2011;69:21-26.
Mulic A, Tveit AB, Wang NJ, Hove LH, Espelid I, Skaare AB: Reliability of two clinical scoring systems for dental erosive wear. Caries Res 2010;44:294-299.
Nariyama M, Shimizu K, Uematsu T, Maeda T: Identification of chromosomes associated with dental caries susceptibility using quantitative trait locus analysis in mice. Caries Res 2004;38:79-84.
Patir A, Seymen F, Yildirim M, Deeley K, Cooper ME, Marazita ML, Vieira AR: Enamel formation genes are associated with high caries experience in Turkish children. Caries Res 2008;42:394-400.
Purcell S, Neale B, Todd-Brown K, Thomas L, Ferreira MA, Bender D, Maller J, Sklar P, de Bakker PI, Daly MJ, Sham PC: PLINK: a tool set for whole-genome association and population-based linkage analyses. Am J Hum Genet 2007;81:559-575.
Rajpar MH, Harley K, Laing C, Davies RM, Dixon MJ: Mutation of the gene encoding the enamel-specific protein, enamelin, causes autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mol Genet 2001;10:1673-1677.
Rosen S, Hunt HR, Hoppert CA: Hereditary limitations of the infectious and transmissible nature of experimental dental caries. Arch Oral Biol 1961;5:92-97.
Shimizu T, Ho B, Deeley K, Briseno-Ruiz J, Faraco IM Jr, Schupack BI, Brancher JA, Pecharki GD, Kuchler EC, Tannure PN, Lips A, Vieira TC, Patir A, Yildirim M, Poletta FA, Mereb JC, Resick JM, Brandon CA, Orioli IM, Castilla EE, Marazita ML, Seymen F, Costa MC, Granjeiro JM, Trevilatto PC, Vieira AR: Enamel formation genes influence enamel microhardness before and after cariogenic challenge. PLoS One 2012;7:e45022.
Shuler CF: Inherited risks for susceptibility to dental caries. J Dent Educ 2001;65:1038-1045.
Simmer JP, Hu JC: Dental enamel formation and its impact on clinical dentistry. J Dent Educ 2001;65:896-905.
Slayton RL, Cooper ME, Marazita ML: Tuftelin, mutans streptococci, and dental caries susceptibility. J Dent Res 2005;84:711-714.
Smith TM, Olejniczak AJ, Reid DJ, Ferrell RJ, Hublin JJ: Modern human molar enamel thickness and enamel-dentine junction shape. Arch Oral Biol 2006;51:974-995.
Sovik JB, Tveit AB, Storesund T, Mulic A: Dental erosion: a widespread condition nowadays? A cross-sectional study among a group of adolescents in Norway. Acta Odontol Scand 2014;72:523-529.
Uhlen MM, Tveit AB, Refsholt Stenhagen K, Mulic A: Self-induced vomiting and dental erosion - a clinical study. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:92.
van Rijkom HM, Truin GJ, Frencken JE, Konig KG, van't Hof MA, Bronkhorst EM, Roeters FJ: Prevalence, distribution and background variables of smooth-bordered tooth wear in teenagers in the Hague, the Netherlands. Caries Res 2002;36:147-154.
Vieira AR, Marazita ML, Goldstein-McHenry T: Genome-wide scan finds suggestive caries loci. J Dent Res 2008;87:435-439.
Young A, Amaechi BT, Dugmore C, Holbrook P, Nunn J, Schiffner U, Lussi A, Ganss C: Current erosion indices - flawed or valid? Summary. Clin Oral Investig 2008;12(suppl 1):S59-S63.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.