Objective: This study investigated the remineralization potential of theobromine in comparison to a standard NaF dentifrice. Methods: Three tooth blocks were produced from each of 30 teeth. Caries-like lesion was created on each block using acidified gel. A smaller block was cut from each block for baseline scanning electron microscopy imaging and electron-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for surface Ca level. A tooth slice was cut from each lesion-bearing block for transverse microradiography (TMR) quantification of baseline mineral loss (Δz) and lesion depth (LD). Then baseline surface microhardness (SMH) of each lesion was measured. The three blocks from each tooth were assigned to three remineralizing agents: (1) artificial saliva; (2) artificial saliva with theobromine (0.0011 mol/l), and (3) NaF toothpaste slurry (0.0789 mol/l F). Remineralization was conducted using a pH cycling model with storage in artificial saliva. After a 28-day cycle, samples were analyzed using EDS, TMR, and SMH. Intragroup comparison of pre- and posttest data was performed using t tests (p < 0.05). Intergroup comparisons were performed by post hoc multistep comparisons (Tukey). Results: SMH indicated significant (p < 0.01) remineralization only with theobromine (38 ± 32%) and toothpaste (29 ± 16%). With TMR (Δz/lD), theobromine and toothpaste exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) higher mineral gain relative to artificial saliva. With SMH and TMR, remineralization produced by theobromine and toothpaste was not significantly different. With EDS, calcium deposition was significant in all groups, but not significantly different among the groups (theobromine 13 ± 8%, toothpaste 10 ± 5%, and artificial saliva 6 ± 8%). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that theobromine in an apatite-forming medium can enhance the remineralization potential of the medium.

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