The shift in microbial diversity from young to mature plaque, related to caries activity on sound and restored surfaces, was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. During a 20-week in situ study on caries progression 8 subjects wearing restored and unrestored dentin and enamel sections, biofilm was sampled after 1 and 20 weeks (young or mature plaque). A higher microbial diversity (mature plaque) was seen in caries-active compared to caries-free subjects. Rothia dentocariosa and Scardovia inopinata were absent from all caries-free sites, but appeared in 50% of the caries-active sites.

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