The shift in microbial diversity from young to mature plaque, related to caries activity on sound and restored surfaces, was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. During a 20-week in situ study on caries progression 8 subjects wearing restored and unrestored dentin and enamel sections, biofilm was sampled after 1 and 20 weeks (young or mature plaque). A higher microbial diversity (mature plaque) was seen in caries-active compared to caries-free subjects. Rothia dentocariosa and Scardovia inopinata were absent from all caries-free sites, but appeared in 50% of the caries-active sites.

Chen Z, Saxena D, Caufield PW, Ge Y, Wang M, Li Y: Development of species-specific primers for detection of Streptococcus mutans in mixed bacterial samples. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2007;272:154–162.
Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM (eds): Dental Caries: The Disease and Its Clinical Management, ed 2. Blackwell/Wiley, Oxford, 2008.
Filoche SK, Soma KJ, Sissons CH: Caries-related plaque microcosm biofilms developed in microplates. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2007;22:73–79.
Keijser BJ, Zaura E, Huse SM, van der Vossen JM, Schuren FH, Montijn RC, ten Cate JM, Crielaard W: Pyrosequencing analysis of the oral microflora of healthy adults. J Dent Res 2008;87:1016–1020.
Li J, Helmerhorst EJ, Leone CW, Troxler RF, Yaskell T, Haffajee AD, Socransky SS, Oppenheim FG: Identification of early microbial colonizers in human dental biofilm. J Appl Microbiol 2004;97:1311–1318.
Li Y, Saxena D, Barnes VM, Trivedi HM, Ge Y, Xu T: Polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the evaluation of oral microbiota. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;2:333–339.
Ludwig W, Strunk O, Klugbauer S, Klugbauer N, Weizenegger M, Neumaier J, Bachleitner M, Schleifer KH: Bacterial phylogeny based on comparative sequence analysis. Electrophoresis 1998;19:554–568.
Mantzourani M, Gilbert SC, Sulong HN, Sheehy EC, Tank S, Fenlon M, Beighton D: The isolation of bifidobacteria from occlusal carious lesions in children and adults. Caries Res 2009;43:308–313.
Marsh PD: Microbial ecology of dental plaque and its significance in health and disease. Adv Dent Res 1994;8:263–271.
Munson MA, Banerjee A, Watson TF, Wade WG: Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:3023–3029.
Nyvad B, Kilian M: Microflora associated with experimental root surface caries in humans. Infect Immun 1990;58:1628–1633.
Selwitz RH, Ismail AI, Pitts NB: Dental caries. Lancet 2007;368:51–59.
Takahashi N, Nyvad B: The role of bacteria in the caries process: ecological perspectives. J Dent Res 2011;90:294–303.
Tanner AC, Mathney JM, Kent RL, Chalmers NI, Hughes CV, Loo CY, Pradhan N, Kanasi E, Hwang J, Dahlan MA, Papadopolou E, Dewhirst FE: Cultivable anaerobic microbiota of severe early childhood caries. J Clin Microbiol 2011;49:1464–1474.
Thomas RZ, Ruben JL, ten Bosch JJ, Fidler V, Huysmans MCDNJM: Approximal secondary caries lesion progression, a 20-week in situ study. Caries Res 2007;41:399–405.
Thomas RZ, van der Mei HC, van der Veen MH, de Soet JJ, Huysmans MC: Bacterial composition and red fluorescence of plaque in relation to primary and secondary caries next to composite: an in situ study. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2008;23:7–13.
van Strijp AJP, van Steenbergen TJM, ten Cate JM: Bacterial colonization of mineralized and completely demineralized dentine in situ. Caries Res 1997;31:349–355.
Zaura E, Keijser BJ, Huse SM, Crielaard W: Defining the healthy ‘core microbiome’ of oral microbial communities. BMC Microbiol 2009;9:259.
Zee KY, Samaranayake LP, Attström R, Davies WI: Predominant cultivable microflora of supragingival dental plaque in Chinese individuals. Arch Oral Biol 1996;41:647–653.
Zijnge V, Harmsen HJ, Kleinfelder JW, van der Rest ME, Degener JE, Welling GW: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis to study bacterial community structure in pockets of periodontitis patients. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2003;18:59–65.
Zijnge V, Welling GW, Degener JE, van Winkelhoff AJ, Abbas F, Harmsen HJ: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic tool in periodontal microbiology. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:3628–3633.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.