The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk indicators for erosive tooth wear (ETW) in Brazilian preschool children. A total of 967 children aged 3–4 years were examined. ETW was assessed using a modified version of the index recommended by O’Brien [London, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1994]. The 16 examiners were trained and calibrated. Hierarchical logistic regression was applied to investigate the association between ETW and socio-economic, environmental, nutritional and behavioural factors, as well as factors related to the child’s characteristics. ETW was present in 51.6% of children. Most lesions were confined to enamel (93.9%) and involved over two thirds of the tooth surface’s area (82%). There were no significant associations between ETW and socio-economic, environmental and nutritional variables. ETW was significantly associated with soft drink intake twice or 3 or more times a day (p = 0.043 and 0.023, respectively), frequent reported gastro-oesophageal reflux (p = 0.005) and age (p = 0.003). In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of ETW in the preschool children examined, and the risk indicators were frequent consumption of soft drinks, reported gastro-oesophageal reflux and age.

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