Taller stature is associated with better health status. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that taller Brazilian adolescents have lower levels of caries experience. Data were collected through questionnaires, clinical examinations for oral health and anthropometric measures from a cross-sectional study conducted in Goiânia, Brazil, on 664 randomly selected 15-year-old schoolchildren. Variables analyzed were adolescents’ caries experience (DMFT and DMFS index) as outcome variables, height as an explanatory variable and social class, school performance, exposure to fluoride, frequency of sugar consumption and pattern of dental attendance as possible confounders. Polytomous ordered regression was used in the data analysis. A decreased risk of having higher DMFT levels was found among taller adolescents in quintile 3 (OR = 0.63, CI 0.40–0.99) and in the highest quintile (OR = 0.54, CI 0.35–0.82), while an increased risk was found among those from low social class compared with those from high social class (OR = 1.45, CI 1.10–1.91) and those who had at least one school failure compared with those who had never failed (OR = 1.57, CI 1.17–2.10). A decreased risk of having higher DMFS levels was found among the tallest adolescents (OR = 0.55, CI 0.36–0.83), while an increased risk was found among those from low social class compared with those from high social class (OR = 1.57, CI 1.20–2.07) and those who had at least one school failure compared with those who had never failed (OR = 1.66, CI 1.24–2.23). The hypothesis that taller adolescents have lower levels of caries experience was confirmed in the sample of the present study.

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