A new proportional counter technique for the assessment of mineral content of calcified tissues has been reported and its application to an understanding of enamel structure and dental caries in deciduous enamel was assessed. The pattern of caries in deciduous and permanent teeth has been compared and an explanation for the differences observed is offered in terms of structural differences in the enamel. The level of mineralization in postnatal and prenatal enamel was noted and it was found that the prenatal enamel was less mineralized than the postnatal enamel. The possible significance of these findings in the spread of dental caries is considered in the discussion.

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