The role of Streptococcus mutans in the development of dental caries is well recognized. Important virulence factors include the glucosyltransferases (gtf), essential for production of glucans. We evaluated the anticariogenic effects of orally administered chicken anti-cell-associated (CA) Gtf antibodies in desalivated rats. The animals were infected with S. mutans MT8148R and treated with chicken anti-CA-Gtf egg yolk antibodies (IgY) or nonimmune egg yolk powder. Smooth surface lesions were significantly lower in the anti-CA-Gtf-treated group in comparison to the control groups. Sulcal surface caries was also decreased and of less severity. Our study suggests that chicken anti-CA-Gtf antibodies may have promise as a prophylaxis for high caries risk patients.