Cassava flour is the main dietary carbohydrate source in the Amazonian region. The cariogenic potentials of the two main kinds of cassava flour – ‘seca’ and ‘d’água’ – were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. A sweet made from a regional fruit (cupuaçú) and a species of local fish (tambaqui) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. For in vivo evaluation of dental plaque acidogenicity, the study had a crossover design, in four legs, with 19 volunteers in four treatment groups. Dental plaque pH was determined by the microtouch method before and for 60 min after food consumption. For in vitro evaluation, stimulated saliva of each volunteer was incubated with the food and pH variation was determined over 4 h. Carbohydrates were chemically determined in the flours and the majority was found to be water-insoluble. In vivo, plaque pH decreased significantly after the consumption of the sweet (p < 0.05), increased after the fish (p < 0.05), but did not change after intake of the flours (p > 0.05). In vitro, the flours were slowly fermented by bacteria present in saliva. The in vivo and in vitro findings suggest that, in the form that the main cassava flours from the Amazonian region of Brazil are customarily eaten, they may be considered to have no or very low cariogenicity.

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