The cariogenicity of two chocolate confections was compared using a rat caries model. One chocolate confection contained 5.6% w/w casein while the other contained 16.6% w/w casein. The levels of fat and sucrose were the same in both confectionery. The casein enrichment was achieved by replacing the 18% w/w non-fat milk solids used normally in the manufacture of milk chocolate with soluble sodium caseinate. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats infected with streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus mutans consumed the chocolate diets either ad libitum or in a Konig/Hofer programmed feeder. Animals consuming the casein-enriched chocolate either ad libitum or programme-fed had significantly (p < 0.001) lower smooth surface and fissure caries scores than the animals consuming the normal chocolate. There was no significant difference in the mean final body weight, salivary output, or salivary protein, calcium or phosphate concentrations between the animals on the two chocolate diets. There was also no significant difference in the number of total organisms, streptococci or streptomycin-resistant S. mutans recovered from the swabs of the molar teeth of animals on both diets. The work confirms an earlier report of a topical anticariogenic effect of soluble caseinate and shows that it is possible to reduce the cariogenicity of chocolate by caseinate supplementation.

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