21 newly weaned monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups housed on opposite sides of the same room. A cariogenic diet was introduced and 20 weeks later group 1 (13 monkeys) harboured mainly Streptococcus mutans serotype ein the plaque collected from the grooves and fissures of the deciduous premolar and molar teeth. Group 2 (8 monkeys) harboured a mixture of S. mutans serotypes c and h. These S. mutans populations remained stable for at least a further 70 weeks. The total number of carious lesions on the deciduous teeth was recorded and after the cariogenic high sucrose diet was fed for 42 weeks group 1 (serotype e) had significantly more carious lesions than group 2. At week 90 the mean caries score of group 1 was 6.5 ± 1.7 (mean ± SE) compared with 1.4 ± 0.7 for group 2.

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