Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 are believed to play a pathophysiologic role in acute myocardial infarction (MI). The time course of their plasma concentrations in correlation with the extent of myocardial damage is unclear. In a prospective study, 20 patients with proven acute MI underwent successful reperfusion within 6 h after the onset of symptoms. The patients were divided into two groups according to the size of their MI, i.e. large or moderate MI. Plasma concentrations of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 were determined on admission, and after 24 h, 48 h, 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. MMP-2 levels remained unchanged over time in both groups. The plasma concentration of MMP-9 was elevated on admission in patients with large MI versus moderate MI (195 ± 190 versus 78 ± 63 ng/ml, p < 0.01) as determined by left ventriculography, and returned to baseline (18 ± 16 ng/ml) by 1 week after MI. TIMP-1 levels rose slowly in patients with large MI and returned to baseline at 6 months. The ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 was significantly increased on admission in both groups and returned to baseline at 48 h. These data suggest that MMP-9 might play a pathophysiologic role during the early phase of acute MI.

Pfeffer MA, Braunwald E: Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Experimental observations and clinical implications. Circulation 1990;81:1161–1172.
Nagase H, Woessner JF Jr: Matrix metalloproteinases. J Biol Chem 1999;274:21491–21494.
Romanic AM, Burns-Kurtis CL, Gout B, Berrebi-Bertrand I, Ohlstein EH: Matrix metalloproteinase expression in cardiac myocytes following myocardial infarction in the rabbit. Life Sci 2001;68:799–814.
Peterson JT, Li H, Dillon L, Bryant JW: Evolution of matrix metalloprotease and tissue inhibitor expression during heart failure progression in the infarcted rat. Cardiovasc Res 2000;46:307–315.
Lu L, Gunja-Smith Z, Woessner JF, Ursell PC, Nissen T, Galardy RE, Xu Y, Zhu P, Schwartz GG: Matrix metalloproteinases and collagen ultrastructure in moderate myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000;279:H601–H609.
Etoh T, Joffs C, Deschamps AM, Davis J, Dowdy K, Hendrick J, Baicu S, Mukherjee R, Manhaini M, Spinale FG: Myocardial and interstitial matrix metalloproteinase activity after acute myocardial infarction in pigs. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001;281:H987–H994.
Carlyle WC, Jacobson AW, Judd DL, Tian B, Chu C, Hauer KM, Hartman MM, McDonald KM: Delayed reperfusion alters matrix metalloproteinase activity and fibronectin mRNA expression in the infarct zone of the ligated rat heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1997;29:2451–2463.
Romanic AM, Harrison SM, Bao W, Burns-Kurtis CL, Pickering S, Gu J, Grau E, Mao J, Sathe GM, Ohlstein EH, Yue TL: Myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury by targeted deletion of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Cardiovasc Res 2002;54:549–558.
Cheung PY, Sawicki G, Wozniak M, Wang W, Radomski MW, Schulz R: Matrix metalloproteinase-2 contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart. Circulation 2000;101:1833–1839.
Kai H, Ikeda H, Yasukawa H, Kai M, Seki Y, Kuwahara F, Ueno T, Sugi K, Imaizumi T: Peripheral blood levels of matrix metalloproteases-2 and -9 are elevated in patients with acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32:368–372.
Feild BJ, Russell RO Jr, Dowling JT, Rackley CE: Regional left ventricular performance in the year following myocardial infarction. Circulation 1972;46:679–689.
Di Donato M, Barletta G, Maioli M, Fantini F, Coste P, Sabatier M, Montiglio F, Dor V: Early hemodynamic results of left ventricular reconstructive surgery for anterior wall left ventricular aneurysm. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:886–890.
Gaudron P, Eilles C, Kugler I, Ertl G: Progressive left ventricular dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction. Potential mechanisms and early predictors. Circulation 1993;87:755–763.
Gaudron P, Kugler I, Hu K, Bauer W, Eilles C, Ertl G: Time course of cardiac structural, functional and electrical changes in asymptomatic patients after myocardial infarction: Their inter-relation and prognostic impact. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:33–40.
Rosalki SB: An improved procedure for serum creatine phosphokinase determination. J Lab Clin Med 1967;69:696–705.
Inokubo Y, Hanada H, Ishizaka H, Fukushi T, Kamada T, Okumura K: Plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 are increased in the coronary circulation in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Am Heart J 2001;141:211–217.
Lindsey M, Wedin K, Brown MD, Keller C, Evans AJ, Smolen J, Burns AR, Rossen RD, Michael L, Entman M: Matrix-dependent mechanism of neutrophil-mediated release and activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Circulation 2001;103:2181–2187.
Hirohata S, Kusachi S, Murakami M, Murakami T, Sano I, Watanabe T, Komatsubara I, Kondo J, Tsuji T: Time dependent alterations of serum matrix metalloproteinase-1 and metalloproteinase-1 tissue inhibitor after successful reperfusion of acute myocardial infarction. Heart 1997;78:278–284.
Schwartzkopff B, Fassbach M, Pelzer B, Brehm M, Strauer BE: Elevated serum markers of collagen degradation in patients with mild to moderate dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail 2002;4:439–434.
Hojo Y, Ikeda U, Katsuki T, Mizuno O, Fujikawa H, Shimada K: Matrix metalloproteinase expression in the coronary circulation induced by coronary angioplasty. Atherosclerosis 2002;161:185–192.
Ducharme A, Frantz S, Aikawa M, Rabkin E, Lindsey M, Rohde LE, Schoen FJ, Kelly RA, Werb Z, Libby P, Lee RT: Targeted deletion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 attenuates left ventricular enlargement and collagen accumulation after experimental myocardial infarction. J Clin Invest 2000;106:55–62.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.