Patients with nephrotic syndrome and those with cirrhosis are predisposed to salt and water retention due to reduced renal sodium excretion. Despite the prescription of low-sodium diets and diuretics, some patients develop refractory oedema. When other medical treatments have been ineffective, isolated ultrafiltration and hemofiltration have been successfully used to treat refractory nephrotic patients. Following fluid removal, patients become responsive to diuretics. In cirrhotic patients, re-infusion of ascites and paracentesis with albumin infusion have been reported to be equally effective in managing ascites refractory to diuretic and other standard therapies. Although isolated ultrafiltration has not been successful in controlling ascitic fluid, hemofiltration has been shown to be beneficial, whereas standard intermittent hemodialysis has been reported to be ineffective.

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