We investigated changes in blood coagulation in the coronary circulation after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and its clinical significance. We examined 43 patients with ischemic heart disease who underwent elective PTCA of isolated stenotic lesions in the left coronary artery. Ten patients underwent PTCA alone, 15 received percutaneous transluminal rotational atherectomy (PTRA) and 18 stent implantation. Blood samples were drawn from the coronary sinus before and immediately after PTCA, as well as 4 and 24 h later. Plasma levels of tissue factor (TF), thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) and prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F 1+2) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Follow-up coronary angiography was performed 6 months after PTCA. Minimal luminal diameter was assessed by quantitative coronary angiography to evaluate late loss index. TF, TAT and F 1+2 levels in the coronary sinus blood showed significant increases 24 h after PTCA. A significant positive correlation was found between changes in TF levels 24 h after PTCA and late loss index 6 months after the procedure. TF levels in the coronary sinus blood were significantly higher in patients with late restenosis than in those without restenosis. These results suggest that TF expression in the coronary circulation after PTCA is a prognostic factor for late restenosis.

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