Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can differentiate into several lineages including bone. Successful bone formation requires osteogenesis and angiogenesis coupling of MSCs. Here, we investigate if simultaneous activation of BMP9 and Notch signaling yields effective osteogenesis-angiogenesis coupling in MSCs. Methods: Recently-characterized immortalized mouse adipose-derived progenitors (iMADs) were used as MSC source. Transgenes BMP9, NICD and dnNotch1 were expressed by adenoviral vectors. Gene expression was determined by qPCR and immunohistochem¡stry. Osteogenic activity was assessed by in vitro assays and in vivo ectopic bone formation model. Results: BMP9 upregulated expression of Notch receptors and ligands in iMADs. Constitutively-active form of Notch1 NICD1 enhanced BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, which was effectively inhibited by dominant-negative form of Notch1 dnNotch1. BMP9- and NICD1-transduced MSCs implanted with a biocompatible scaffold yielded highly mature bone with extensive vascularization. NICD1 enhanced BMP9-induced expression of key angiogenic regulators in iMADs and Vegfa in ectopic bone, which was blunted by dnNotch1. Conclusion: Notch signaling may play an important role in BMP9-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis. It’s conceivable that simultaneous activation of the BMP9 and Notch pathways should efficiently couple osteogenesis and angiogenesis of MSCs for successful bone tissue engineering.

Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.