Background/Aims: We investigated the regenerative capacity of intravenous administration of bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells (BMMCs) in a rat model of bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury and the involvement of inflammatory anti-inflammatory and other biological markers in this process. Methods: Rats were subjected to 1h bilateral renal pedicle clamping. BMMCs were injected i.v 1h after reperfusion and tracked by 99mTc and GFP+ BMMCs. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, renal function and histological changes were evaluated. The mRNA (real time PCR) and protein (ELISA and immuno-staining) expression of biological markers were analyzed. Results: Renal function and structure improved after infusion of BMMCs in the IR group (IR-C). Labeled BMMCs were found in the kidneys after therapy. The expression of inflammatory and biological markers (TLR-2, TRL-4, RAGE, IL-17, HMGB-1, KIM-1) were reduced and the expression of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers (IL-10, Nrf2, and HO-1) were increased in IR-C animals compared with IR untreated animals (IR-S). The apoptotic index diminished and the proliferation index increased in IR-C compared with IR-S. Conclusion: The results contribute to our understanding of the role of different biological players in morphofunctional renal improvement and cytoprotection in a post-ischemic reperfusion kidney injury model subjected to cellular therapy.

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