Tanshinone IIA, an antimicrobial, antioxidant, antianaphylactic, antifibrotic, vasodilating, antiatherosclerotic, organo-protective and antineoplastic component from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is known to trigger apoptosis of tumor cells. Tanshinone IIA is effective in part through mitochondrial depolarization and altered gene expression. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but may undergo eryptosis, an apoptosis-like suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, ATP depletion and ceramide formation. The present study explored, whether tanshinone IIA elicits eryptosis. Cytosolic Ca2+-concentration was determined from Fluo3-fluorescence, cell volume from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure from binding of fluorescent annexin V, hemolysis from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant, ATP concentration utilizing luciferin–luciferase and ceramide formation utilizing fluorescent anticeramide antibodies. Clearance of circulating erythrocytes was estimated by CFSE-labeling. A 48 h exposure to tanshinone IIA (≥10 µM) significantly increased cytosolic Ca2+-concentration, decreased ATP concentration (25 µM), increased lactate concentration (25 µM), increased ceramide formation (25 µM), decreased forward scatter, increased annexin-V-binding and increased (albeit to a much smaller extent) hemolysis. The effect of 25 µM tanshinone IIA on annexin-V binding was partially reversed in the nominal absence of Ca2+. Labelled tanshinone IIA-treated erythrocytes were more rapidly cleared from the circulating blood in comparison to untreated erythrocytes. The present observations reveal a completely novel effect of tanshinone IIA, i.e. triggering of Ca2+ entry, ATP depletion and ceramide formation in erythrocytes, events eventually leading to eryptosis with cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.