We report a case of recurrent epiretinal membrane (ERM) after spontaneous resolution of an idiopathic ERM. A 65-year-old female demonstrated a spontaneous improvement in visual acuity from 0.1 to 1.2 in her left eye attributable to spontaneous resolution of idiopathic ERM due to posterior vitreous detachment. Thereafter, however, her visual acuity again decreased to 0.2 because of the recurrence of ERM. Her visual acuity improved to 0.8 after surgical removal. A microscopic examination of the excised specimen showed a characteristic undulating internal limiting membrane (ILM) and a continuous sheet of cells overlying the inner surface of the ILM. This case report illustrates that although spontaneous ERM resolution is rare, there is a possibility of recurrence even after spontaneous ERM resolution.

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