Objectives: Osteoarthritis has a tremendous socioeconomic impact in terms of drug spending, hospital admissions, work productivity, and temporary or permanent incapacity. Mud therapy has been discussed as potential conservative treatment options for osteoarthritis. However, findings from several trials still remain controversial. For this reason, we aimed to systematically review the highest evidence provided by published trials to estimate the clinical effect of mud-pack and mud-bath therapy for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Methods: We searched PubMed, PEDro, and the Cochrane CENTRAL Register for Controlled Trials for articles published between 2000 and 2020 using the terms “orthopedics,” “orthopaedics,” “musculoskeletal,” “osteoarthritis,” and “mud bath,” “mud pack.” Results: Of the 19 studies included, 15 examined the effects of mud-bath therapy in knee osteoarthritis treatment. One study focused on the treatment effect of mud bath on hand osteoarthritis, another study examined treatment effects in hip and knee osteoarthritis, and two studies enrolled patients with chronic low back pain caused by lumbar spine osteoarthritis. We systematically reviewed the data obtained from the literature and summarized the results on the basis of the main outcomes. The results show significant improvements in function, quality of life, and perceived pain for patients with osteoarthritis. Conclusion: Results of randomized controlled trials suggest that mud therapy is part of a promising integrated and synergistic multidisciplinary approach in combination with other treatment forms like pharmacotherapy or physiotherapy.

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