Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is leading to unknown and unusual health conditions that are challenging to manage. Post-COVID-19 fatigue is one of those challenges, becoming increasingly common as the pandemic evolves, as it impairs the quality of life of an individual. This trial attempts to identify the preliminary evidence of the efficacy of individualized homeopathic medicines (IHMs) against placebos in the treatment of post-COVID-19 fatigue in adults. Methods: A 3-month, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm trial was conducted at the outpatient department of The Calcutta Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, India. Sixty participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either IHMs (n = 30) or identical-looking placebos (n = 30). The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and Outcome in Relation to Impact on Daily Living (ORIDL), respectively, measured every month, for up to 3 months. Comparative analysis was carried out on the intention-to-treat sample to detect group differences. Results: Group differences in both the primary (FAS total: F1, 58 = 14.356, p < 0.001) and secondary outcomes (ORIDL: F1, 58 = 210.986, p < 0.001) after 3 months favored IHMs against placebos. Lycopodium clavatum (11.7%), sulfur (11.7%), Arsenicum album (10%), and Thuja occidentalis (10%) were the most frequently indicated medicines. No harm, unintended effects, homeopathic aggravations, or any serious adverse events were reported from either of the groups. Conclusion: IHMs produced significantly better effects than placebos in the treatment of post-COVID-19 fatigue in adults. Definitive robust trials may be undertaken to confirm the findings.

1.
Chippa
V
,
Aleem
A
,
Anjum
F
Post-acute coronavirus (COVID-19) syndrome
Treasure Island (FL)
StatPearls Publishing
.
2023
.
2.
Baig
AM
.
Deleterious outcomes in long-hauler COVID-19: the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS in chronic COVID syndrome
.
ACS Chem Neurosci
.
2020
;
11
(
24
):
4017
20
.
3.
Rodriguez-Sanchez
I
,
Rodriguez-Mañas
L
,
Laosa
O
.
Long COVID-19: the need for an interdisciplinary approach
.
Clin Geriatr Med
.
2022
;
38
(
3
):
533
44
.
4.
Kamal
M
,
Abo Omirah
MA
,
Hussein
A
,
Saeed
H
.
Assessment and characterisation of post-COVID-19 manifestations
.
Int J Clin Pract
.
2021
;
75
(
3
):
e13746
.
5.
Malik
P
,
Patel
K
,
Pinto
C
,
Jaiswal
R
,
Tirupathi
R
,
Pillai
S
et al
.
Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL): a systematic review and meta-analysis
.
J Med Virol
.
2022
;
94
(
1
):
253
62
.
6.
SEMG encuesta COVID-19 persistente. Presentación de Resultados
.
2020
.
7.
Sykes
DL
,
Holdsworth
L
,
Jawad
N
,
Gunasekera
P
,
Morice
AH
,
Crooks
MG
.
Crooks MG post-COVID-19 symptom burden: what is long-COVID and how should we manage it
.
Lung
.
2021
;
199
(
2
):
113
9
.
8.
A clinical case definition of post-COVID-19 condition by a Delphi consensus
.
2023
. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Post_COVID-19_condition-Clinical_case_definition-2021.1 [Accessed 2023 Aug 23].
9.
Michielsen
HJ
,
De Vries
J
,
Van Heck
GL
.
Psychometric qualities of a brief self-rated fatigue measure the fatigue assessment scale
.
J Psychosom Res
.
2003
;
54
(
4
):
345
52
.
10.
Close
SC
.
VII: susceptibility, reaction, and immunity
. In.
The genius of Homoeopathy: lectures and essays on homoeopathic philosophy
New Delhi
B. Jain Publishers (P) Ltd
.
2005
. p.
76
86
.
11.
Reilly
D
,
Mercer
SW
,
Bikker
AP
,
Harrison
T
.
Outcome related to impact on daily living: preliminary validation of the ORIDL instrument
.
BMC Health Serv Res
.
2007
;
7
:
139
.
12.
Schulz
KF
,
Altman
DG
,
Moher
D
CONSORT Group
.
CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomized trials
.
Open Med
.
2010
;
4
(
1
):
e60
8
.
13.
Dean
ME
,
Coulter
MK
,
Fisher
P
,
Jobst
K
,
Walach
H
.
Reporting data on homeopathic treatments (RedHot): a supplement to CONSORT
.
Homeopathy
.
2007
;
96
(
1
):
42
5
.
14.
Rathi
A
,
Jadhav
SB
,
Shah
N
.
A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of systemic enzymes and probiotics in the resolution of post-COVID fatigue
.
Medicines
.
2021
;
8
(
9
):
47
.
You do not currently have access to this content.