Introduction: Nuts are one of the dietary components which appear to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease biomarkers. Studies demonstrate beneficial effects of cash-ews on serum lipids concentration, but results in the literature remain inconclusive. We conducted a review to examine the effects of cashew nut supplementation on serum lipid profile. Methods: Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and EMBASE electronic databases from inception until June 2019 without language limitation. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CI) for studies. Results: Six randomized clinical trials comprising 531 participants were included in this systematic review. Three studies were included in the meta-analysis model. There were no significant changes for total cholesterol (TC) (standardized mean difference [SMD]: –0.02, 95% CI: –0.32, 0.28), triglycerides (TG) (SMD: –0.01, 95% CI: –0.22, 0.20), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (SMD: 0.09, 95% CI: –0.16, 0.34), or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (SMD: –0.18, 95% CI: –0.75, 0.39). Conclusion: The results of this analysis demonstrate that treatment with cashew nut supplementation alone did not significantly change serum levels of LDL, HDL, TC, or TG.

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