Background: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of a 12-month treatment with Phyllanthus niruri in subjects with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients and Methods: A placebo-controlled, parallel-group double-blind trial was performed. Clinical assessments took place at baseline and at 1, 3, 9, and 12 months after the treatment start and 6 months after treatment end. Results: In the first 2 years, 50 eligible subjects with chronic HBV accepted to participate. Of those, 47 completed all the study-related visits (6% drop-out rate): 24 of the 26 (92%) allocated to the Phyllanthus group and 23 of the 24 (96%) allocated to the placebo group completed the study. No statistically significant differences in viral load were found between the intervention and placebo groups after 12 months and no subjects showed HBsAg clearance. With regards to safety, there were no changes in renal function parameters in both groups after 12 months and no serious adverse events occurred due to the treatment. The study was stopped at the end of the second year because there was no apparent benefit of the treatment. Conclusion: This study does not support the use of Phyllanthus niruri for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

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