Background/Aims: Reduced minority participation in clinical research challenges researchers to consider novel recruitment modalities. This study describes a formal partnership between the National Educational Foundation of the Zeta Phi Beta Sorority and the Mid-Atlantic Cancer Genetics Network. The goal was to enhance awareness about inherited breast cancer and to increase enrollment in the national Cancer Genetics Network. Methods: In this descriptive, pilot study, two recruitment strategies across four states were undertaken: an onsite educational session at four Annual State Leadership Conferences and a 2-tiered direct mail campaign to the sorority membership. Results: Recruitment methods targeted over 1,200 well-educated African American women. Of the 279 attendees at the state conference educational sessions, only 3 women meeting the high risk eligibility requirement enrolled. Direct mail recruitment elicited 24 eligible women. Lessons learned are described. Conclusion: Despite low accrual, the partnership laid a foundation for broader collaboration with the Zeta Phi Beta Sorority. In the future, collaboration with minority sororities and fraternities as part of standard registry recruitment should be explored.

National Institutes of Health: NIH guidelines on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. Fed Regist 1994;59:14508–14513.
Moorman PG, Newman B, Millikan RC, Tse CK, Sandler DP: Participation rates in a case-control study: the impact of age, race, and race of interviewer. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9:188–195.
Richardson MA, Post-White J, Singletary SE, Justice B: Recruitment for complementary/alternative medicine trials: who participates after breast cancer. Ann Behav Med 1998;20:190–198.
Lerman C, Hughes C, Benkendorf JL, Biesecker B, Kerner J, Willison J, Eads N, Hadley D, Lynch J: Racial differences in testing motivation and psychological distress following pretest education for BRCA1 gene testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:361–367.
Moinpour CM, Atkinson JO, Thomas SM, Underwood SM, Harvey C, Parzuchowski J, Lovato LC, Ryan AM, Hill MS, Deantoni E, Gritz ER, Thompson IM Jr, Coltman CA Jr: Minority recruitment in the prostate cancer prevention trial. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:S85–S91.
Gifford AL, Cunningham WE, Heslin KC, Andersen RM, Nakazono T, Lieu DK, Shapiro MF, Bozzette SA: HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium: participation in research and access to experimental treatments by HIV infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1373–1382.
Adams-Campbell LL, Ahaghotu C, Gaskins M, Dawkins FW, Smoot D, Polk OD, Gooding R, DeWitty RL: Enrollment of AAs into clinical treatment trials: study design barriers. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:730–734.
Levkoff S, Sanchez H: Lessons learned about minority recruitment and retention from Centers on Minority Aging and Health Promotion. Gerontologist 2003;43:18–26.
Anton-Culver H, Ziogas A, Bowen D, Finkelstein D, Griffin C, Hanson J, Isaacs C, Kasten-Sportes C, Mineau G, Nadkarni P, Rimer B, Schildkraut J, Strong L, Weber B, Winn D, Hiatt R, Nayfield S: The Cancer Genetics Network: Recruitment results and pilot studies. Community Genet 2003;6:171–177.
Nagy R, Sweet K, Eng C: Highly penetrant hereditary cancer syndromes. Oncogene 2004;23:6445–6470.
Whelton PK, Lee JY, Kusek JW, Charleston J, DeBruge J, Douglas M, Faulkner M, Greene PG, Jones CA, Kiefer S, Kirk KA, Levell B, Norris K, Powers SN, Retta TM, Smith DE, Ward H: Recruitment experience in the African American study of kidney disease and hypertension (AASK) pilot study. Control Clin Trials 1996;17:17s–33s.
Royal C, Baffoe-Bonnie A, Kittles R, Powell I, Bennett J, Hoke G, Pettaway C, Weinrich S, Vijayakumar S, Ahaghotu C, Mason T, Johnson E, Obeikwe M, Simpson C, Mejia R, Boykin W, Roberson P, Frost J, Faison-Smith L, Meegan C, Foster N, Furbert-Harris P, Carpten J, Bailey-Wilson J, Trent J, Berg K, Dunston G, Collins F: Recruitment experience in the first phase of the African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer (AAHPC) Study. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:S68–S77.
Moorman PG, Skinner CS, Evans JP, Newman B, Sorenson JR, Calingaert B, Susswein L, Crankshaw TS, Hoyo C, Schildkraut JM: Racial differences in enrolment in a cancer genetics registry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:1349–1354.
Hughes C, Gomez-Caminero A, Benkendorf J, Kerner J, Isaacs C, Barter J, Lerman C: Ethnic differences in knowledge and attitudes about BRCA1 testing in women at increased risk. Patient Educ Counsel 1997;32:51–62.
Lerman D, Audrain J, Croyle R: DNA-testing for heritable breast cancer risks: lessons from traditional genetic counseling. Ann Behav Med 1994:16:327–333.
Halbert CH, Kessler L, Collier A, Paul Wileyto E, Breswter K, Weathers B: Psychological functioning in African American women at an increased risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Clin Genet 2005;68:222–227.
Donovan KA, Tucker DC: Knowledge about genetic risk for breast cancer and perceptions of genetic testing in a sociodemographically diverse sample. J Behav Med 2000;23:15–36.
Peters N, Rose A, Armstrong K: The association between race and attitudes about predictive genetic testing. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:361–365.
Wideroff L, Vadaparampil ST, Breen N, Croyle RT, Freedman AN: Awareness of genetic testing for increased cancer risk in the year 2000 National Health Interview Survey. Community Genet 2003;6:147–156.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.