The International HapMap Consortium has developed the HapMap, a resource that describes the common patterns of human genetic variation (haplotypes). Processes of community/public consultation and individual informed consent were implemented in each locality where samples were collected to understand and attempt to address both individual and group concerns. Perceptions about the research varied, but we detected no critical opposition to the research. Incorporating community input and responding to concerns raised was challenging. However, the experience suggests that approaching genetic variation research in a spirit of openness can help investigators better appreciate the views of the communities whose samples they seek to study and help communities become more engaged in the science.

International HapMap Consortium: A haplotype map of the human genome. Nature 2005;437:1299–1320.
International HapMap Consortium: The International HapMap Project. Nature 2003;426:789–796.
International HapMap Consortium: Integrating ethics and science in the International HapMap Project. Nat Rev Genet 2004;5:467–475.
Sharp RR, Foster MW: Involving study populations in the review of genetic research. J Law Med Ethics 2000;28:41–51, 3.
State of Utah Census 2000 Data Profile.
Wikipedia: ‘Yoruba’. (accessed 18 October 2006).
CIA World Fact Book: ‘China’. (accessed 18 October 2006).
Human Genome Organisation (HUGO): Statement on the principled conduct of genetics research. 1996.
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS): International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. 2002.
Deschenes M, Cardinal G, Knoppers BM, Laberge C; Quebec Network of Applied Genetic Medicine (RMGA): Statement of principles on the ethical conduct of human genetic research involving populations. Res Health 2003;30:1–4.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): Universal declaration on the human genome and human rights. J Med Philos 1998;23:334–341.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. 2003.
Bankowski Z, Levine RJ (eds): Ethics and Research on Human Subjects: International Guidelines. Proceedings of the XXVIth CIOMS Conference. Geneva, CIOMS, 1993, p 63.
People’s Republic of China, Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Public Health: Interim measures for the administration of human genetic resources. 1998.
Human Genome Organisation (HUGO): Statement on DNA sampling: control and access. 1998.
Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Council for Science and Technology, Bioethics Committee: Fundamental principles of research on the human genome. 2000.
The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry: Ethical guidelines for analytical research on the human genome/genes. 2001.
National Health Research Ethics Committee of Nigeria (NHGREC), Federal Ministry of Health, Department of Health Planning and Research: National Code of Health Research Ethics. 2006.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising out of their Utilization. Montreal: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2002.
Human Genome Organisation (HUGO): Statement on benefit sharing. Genome Digest 2000;6:7–9.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.