Introduction: Patients treated with midostaurin and chemotherapy are at risk of invasive fungal disease. Prophylactic posaconazole is recommended for these patients, but posaconazole strongly inhibits the CYP3A4 isozyme that metabolizes midostaurin. Posaconazole therefore introduces a risk of patient’s overexposure to midostaurin. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 4 patients treated with midostaurin for newly diagnosed FLT3-mut AML. Patients had received a concomitant treatment with posaconazole, isavuconazole, or micafungin, respectively. All blood samples were drawn before daily dose administration of midostaurin. Results: Posaconazole caused a ≥8-fold increase of midostaurin plasma levels at through, which was accompanied by a decreased plasma exposure to O-demethylated or hydroxylated midostaurin metabolites. We also show that hematologists react to risk perception by replacing posaco-nazole with antifungals like micafungin or isavuconazole, which lack a strong inhibition of CYP3A4 and fail to modify midostaurin pharmacokinetics but are not formally recommended in these settings. Discussion: In real-life scenarios, concerns about CYP3A4 inhibition may outweigh compliance with recommendations. Large studies are needed to survey the risk:benefit of hematologist’s decision to replace posaconazole with other antifungals.

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