Objective: A study was carried out to compare three treatment regimens for vaginal candidiasis. Methods: A total of 150 women with clinical and mycological evidence of vaginal candidiasis were randomized to receive daily a 200-mg dose of oral itraconazole for 3 days (50 women), a single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole (50 women), or daily 100 mg dose of intravaginal clotrimazole for 6 days (50 women). They were assessed at 5–15 days (short-term assessment) and again at 30–60 days (long-term assessment) after discontinuation of the treatment. Results: At the short-term or long-term assessment, Candida species were completely eradicated from the vagina in 80 or 74% in the 3-day oral itraconazole group, 76 or 70% in the single oral fluconazole group, and 72 or 60% in the intravaginal clotrimazole group, respectively. The rates of clinical effectiveness were 92 or 88% in the 3-day oral itraconazole group, 80 or 76% in the single oral fluconazole group, and 72 or 58% in the intravaginal clotrimazole group, respectively. Treatment-related side effects were not found in any group. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the treatment of vaginal candidiasis with oral itraconazole or oral fluconazole would be effective and that an oral itraconazole or fluconazole therapy might be one choice in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.