Renal scarring, which occurs following refluxing pyelonephritis, is considered to be involved in the development of reflux nephropathy. Prevention of renal scar formation requires immediate initiation of antimicrobial treatment; treatment delay results in renal scarring. We demonstrate that Ebselen, an antioxidant agent, given at a dose of 15 mg/kg twice a day prevents renal scarring in rats following direct renal parenchymal bacterial inoculation. In addition, using an ascending pyelonephritis model, which clinically resembles refluxing pyelonephritis in humans, we show that when initiation of antimicrobial treatment was delayed, coadministration of Ebselen prevents renal scar formation. These results show that Ebselen is effective in preventing renal scarring and suggest that the clinical use of this drug may prevent renal scar formation following pyelonephritis and progression to reflux nephropathy.

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