Normal human and rat sera enhanced the in vitro activity of thiamphenicol (TAPH) and chloramphenicol (CAPH) on 8 strains of gram-negative bacteria, TAPH being activated much more than CAPH with respect to the bactenostatic activity, and CAPH little more than TAPH as regards the bactericidal activity. The effect of serum on the TAPH and CAPH activity against 5 gram-positive strains was in most cases null or (principally for CAPH) even depressing. As a whole, TAPH was either activated more than CAPH (principally as regards the bacteriostatic activity) or less antagonized than it (against the gram-positive strains) by serum; this may account for the frequent in vivo increase of the activity of TAPH up to equal or even superior levels as compared to CAPH, despite its lower in vitro activity.

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