Introduction: The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is one of the most commercially important marine shellfish in China. Cell engineering breeding is an important tool in abalone genetic breeding, and the triploids obtained through this method have high commercial value. However, current research mainly focuses on establishing induction methods and evaluating the growth traits of triploids, while there is a lack of basic research on triploid cytogenetics. Method: In this study, Cytogenetic analysis of triploid Haliotis discus hannai larvae (produced by chemical treatment) and diploid larvae was performed. Result: The results showed that triploid H. discus hannai had a chromosome number of 3n = 54, consisting of 30 metacentric (m) and 24 submetacentric (sm) chromosomes, while the diploids had a chromosome number of 2n = 36, consisting of 20 metacentric (m) and 16 submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. Notably, both triploids and diploids displayed variation in the number of NORs and/or their diameter. The average number of NORs in triploid was significantly higher than that in diploids (p < 0.05), but the average diameter of NORs of triploid was no significant different from that of diploid (p > 0.05). Additionally, 5S rDNA localization to 3 submetacentric chromosomes was observed in triploids, compared to 2 submetacentric chromosomes in diploids. The number of 18S rDNA sites displayed positional conservancy and quantitative variability in both diploids and triploids. Specifically, 18S rDNA was found at the end of the chromosome in both groups, with triploids exhibiting a significantly higher number of loci than diploids (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This study provides valuable insights into the cytogenetic characteristics of triploid H. discus hannai, which could facilitate further research on the stability of the chromosome set in this species.