The seventh largest chromosome in Japanese populations of the frog Rana rugosa morphologically evolved as a sex chromosome. The sex chromosome is XX/XY type in one geographic form and ZZ/ZW type in another. In contrast, the seventh chromosomes are still homomorphic between the sexes in the other two geographic forms: they are more subtelocentric in the Kanto form and subtelocentric in the western Japanese form. To identify a prototype of the sex chromosomes, we extended our investigation in this study to the Korean form, which is supposed to be close to the phylogenetic origin of this species. The karyotype, a sex-linked gene sequence, and mecha- nisms of sex determination and gonadal differentiation were all examined. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial gene sequences and the results of crossings between the Korean and Japanese forms. As a consequence, the more subtelocentric seventh chromosome, shared by the Korean and Japanese Kanto forms, was concluded to be the prototype of the sex chromosomes. Starting at the prototype, a whole process of morphological sex chromosome evolution was reconstructed.   

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