The purpose of this study was to determine the nucleotide sequence of canine 5S rRNA and use this information to develop a molecular probe to assign the gene locus to chromosomes of the dog and three other related canid species using fluorescence in situ hybridization. The nucleotide sequence of canine liver 5S rRNA is 120 base pairs long and identical to the 5S rRNA nucleotide sequence of all other mammalian species investigated so far. A single 5S rRNA gene cluster was localized pericentromerically on chromosomes of four canid species: dog 4q1.3, red fox 4q1.3, blue fox 3q1.3 and Chinese raccoon dog 8q1.3. Chromosome arms carrying the 5S rRNA gene cluster showed striking similarities in their QFQ banding patterns, suggesting high conservation of these chromosome arms among the four species studied. The chromosomal assignments of 5S rRNA genes are among the first gene mapping results for the blue fox and the Chinese raccoon dog, and are in accordance with published data on comparative chromosome maps from human, dog, red fox, blue fox and raccoon dogs.    

Augustyniak H, Barciszewski J, Rafalski A, Zawielak J, Szyfter K: Phenylalanine tRNA of Lupinus luteus seeds. Phytochemistry 13:2679–2684 (1974).
Barciszewska MZ, Dirheimer G, Keith G: The nucleotide sequence of methionine elongator tRNA from wheat germ. Biochem biophys Res Commun 114:1161–1168 (1983).
Barciszewska MZ, Mashkova TD, Kisselev LL, Barciszewski J: The primary structure of maize and tobacco 5S rRNA. FEBS Lett 192:289–293 (1985).
Breen M, Jouquand S, Renier C, Mellersh CS, Hitte C, Holmes NG, Chéron A, Suter N, Vignaux F, Bristow AE, Priat C, McCann E, André C, Boundy S, Gitsham P, Thomas R, Bridge WL, Spriggs HF, Ryder EJ, Curson A, Sampson J, Ostrander EA, Binns MM, Galibert F: Chromosome-specific single locus FISH probes allow anchorage of an 1800-marker integrated radiation-hybrid/linkage map of the domesticated dog genome to all chromosomes. Genome Res 11:1784–1795 (2001).
Christensen K, Lomholt B, Hallenberg C, Nielsen KV: Mink 5S rRNA genes map to 2q in three loci suggesting conservation of synteny with human 1q. Hereditas 128:17–20 (1998).
Fischer PE, Holmes NG, Dickens HF, Thomas R, Binns MM, Nacheva EP: The application of FISH technique for physical mapping in the dog (Canis familiaris). Mammal Genome 7:37–41 (1996).
Graphodatsky AS, Yang F, O’Brien PCM, Serdukova N, Milne BS, Trifonov V, Ferguson-Smith MA: A comparative chromosome map of the Arctic fox, red fox and dog defined by chromosome painting and high resolution G-banding. Chrom Res 8:253–263 (2000).
Graphodatsky AS, Yang F, O’Brien PCM, Perelman P, Milne BS, Serdukova N, Kawada S-I, Ferguson-Smith MA: Phylogenetic implications of the 38 putative ancestral chromosome segments for four canid species. Cytogenet Cell Genet 92:243–247 (2001).
Howard-Peebles PN, Howell WM: Nucleolus organizer regions of the canine karyotype. Cytogenet Cell Genet 35:293–294 (1983).
Kopp E, Mayr B, Schleger W: Nucleolus organizer regions on chromosomes of the domestic dog. J Heredity 73:73 (1982).
Kost MV, Alimov AA, Sarafanov AG, Tikchomirova TP, Gumeniuk RR, Timofeeva MJ, Zelenin AV: 5S rRNA gene hybridizes to human chromosome 1 at two sites (1q42.11→q42.13 and 1q43). Cytogenet Cell Genet 68:82–84 (1995).
Lingaas F, Aarskaug T, Gerlach JA, Juneija RK, Fredholm M, Sampson J, Suter N, Holmes NG, Binns MM, Ryder EJ, Van Haeringen WA, Venta PJ, Brouillette JA, Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan V, Wilton AN, Predbacka P, Koskinen M, Dunner S, Parra D, Schmutz S, Schelling C, Schlapfer J, Dolf G: A canine linkage map: 39 linkage groups. J Anim Breed Genet 118:3–19 (2001).
Lomholt B, Christensen K, Hallenberg C, Frederiksen S: Porcine 5S rRNA genes map to 14q23 revealing syntenic relation to human HSPA6- and 7. Mammal Genome 6:439–441 (1995a).
Lomholt B, Frederiksen S, Nederby-Nielsen C, Hallenberg C: Additional assignment of the human 5S rRNA genes to chromosome region 1q31. Cytogenet Cell Genet 70:76–79 (1995b).
Lomholt B, Frederiksen S, Jensen LR, Christensen K, Hallenberg C: 5S rRNA genes in Macaca fascicularis map to chromosome 1p in three loci. Mammal Genome 6:451–453 (1996).
Mäkinen A, Gustavsson I, Switonski M, Takagi N: The standard karyotype of the blue fox (Alopex lagopus). Hereditas 103:33–38 (1985a).
Mäkinen A, Kuokkanen M-T, Gustavsson I, Isakova GK, Takagi N: The Standard karyotype of the silver fox (Vulpes fulvus Desm.). Hereditas 103:171–176 (1985b).
Mäkinen A, Zijlstra C, deHaan NA, Mellink CHM, Bosma AA: Localization of 18S + 28S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in the dog by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet 78:231–235 (1997).
Matsuda Y, Moriwaki K, Chapman VM, Hoi-Sen Y, Akbarzadeh J, Suzuki H: Chromosomal mapping of mouse 5S rRNA genes by direct R-banding fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet 66:246–249 (1994).
Mayr B, Geber G, Auer H, Kalat M, Schleger W: Heterochromatin composition and nucleolus organizer activity in four canid species. Can J Genet Cytol 28:744–753 (1986).
Mellink CHM, Bosma AA, de Haan NA, Zijlstra C: Physical localization of 5S rRNA genes in the pig by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Hereditas 124:95–97 (1996).
Pienkowska A, Switonski M: Chromosomal localization and activity of nucleolar organizer regions in the dog (Canis familiaris). Genet Sel Evol 30:79–84 (1998).
Pinkel D, Straume T, Gray JW: Cytogenetic analysis using quantitative, high-sensitivity fluorescence hybridization. Proc natl Acad Sci, USA 83:2934–2938 (1986).
Rogalska-Niznik N, Schelling C, Dolf G, Schlapfer J, Pienkowska A, Switonski M: Localisation of three canine microsatellites on the Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) chromosomes. Vet Med-Czech 45:314–316 (2000).
Specht T, Szymanski M, Barciszewska MZ, Barciszewski J, Erdman VA: Compilation of 5S rRNA and 5S rRNA gene sequences. Nucl Acids Res 25:96–97 (1997).
Suzuki H, Sakurai S, Matsuda Y: Rat 5S rDNA spacer sequences and chromosomal assignment of the genes to the extreme terminal region of chromosome 19. Cytogenet Cell Genet 72:1–4 (1996).
Switonski M, Reimann N, Bosma AA, Long S, Bartnitzke S, Pienkowska A, Moreno-Milan MM, Fischer P: Report on the progress of standardization of the G-banded canine (Canis familiaris) karyotype. Chrom Res 4:306–309 (1996).
Szymanski M, Barciszewska MZ, Barciszewski J, Erdmann VA: 5S ribosomal RNA database Y2K. Nucl Acids Res 28:166–167 (2000a).
Szymanski M, Barciszewska MZ, Erdmann VA, Barciszewski J: An analysis of G-U base pair occurrence in eukaryotic 5S rRNAs. Mol Biol Evol 17:1194–1198 (2000b).
Uechi T, Tanaka T, Kenmochi N: A complete map of the human ribosomal protein genes: assignment of 80 genes to the cytogenetic map and implications for human disorders. Genomics 72:223–230 (2001).
Ward OG, Wurster-Hill DH, Ratty FJ, Song Y: Comparative cytogenetics of Chinese and Japanese raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides. Cytogenet Cell Genet 45:177–186 (1987).
Wiegant J, Ried T, Nederlof PM, van der Ploeg M, Tanke HJ, Raap AK: In situ hybridization with fluoresceinated DNA. Nucl Acids Res 19:3237–3241 (1991).
Wurster-Hill DH, Ward OG, Kada H, Whittemore S: Banded chromosome studies and B chromosomes in wild-caught Japanese raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus. Cytogenet Cell Genet 42:85–93 (1986).
Yang F, O’Brien PCM, Milne BS, Graphodatsky AS, Solanky N, Trifonow V, Rens W, Sargan D, Ferguson-Smith MA: A complete comparative chromosome map for the dog, red fox and human and its integration with canine genetic maps. Genomics 62:189–202 (1999).
Yang F, Milne BS, Schelling C, Dolf G, Schläpfer J, Switonski M, Ladon D. Pienkowska A, Bosma AA, Sargan DR, Ferguson-Smith MA: Chromosome identification and assignment of DNA clones in the dog using a red fox and dog comparative map. Chrom Res 8:93–100 (2000).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.