Chromosome homologies between the Japanese raccoon dog (Nectereutes procyonoides viverrinus, 2n = 39 + 2–4 B chromosomes) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris, 2n = 78) have been established by hybridizing a complete set of canine paint probes onto high-resolution G-banded chromosomes of the raccoon dog. Dog chromosomes 1, 13, and 19 each correspond to two raccoon dog chromosome segments, while the remaining 35 dog autosomes each correspond to a single segment. In total, 38 dog autosome paints revealed 41 conserved segments in the raccoon dog. The use of dog painting probes has enabled integration of the raccoon dog chromosomes into the previously established comparative map for the domestic dog, Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), and red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Extensive chromosome arm homologies were found among chromosomes of the red fox, Arctic fox, and raccoon dog. Contradicting previous findings, our results show that the raccoon dog does not share a single biarmed autosome in common with the Arctic fox, red fox, or domestic cat. Comparative analysis of the distribution patterns of conserved chromosome segments revealed by dog paints in the genomes of the canids, cats, and human reveals 38 ancestral autosome segments. These segments could represent the ancestral chromosome arms in the karyotype of the most recent ancestor of the Canidae family, which we suggest could have had a low diploid number, based on comparisons with outgroup species.   

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