G- and C-banded karyotypes of four species of the genus Kobus were compared using the standard karyotype of Bos taurus. Chromosomal complements were 2n = 50–54 in K. ellipsiprymnus, 2n = 50 in K. kob, 2n = 48 in K. leche, and 2n = 52 in K. megaceros. The number of autosomal arms in all karyotypes was 58. Fifteen autosomal pairs were conserved among these four species, including the 1;19 and 2;25 centric fusions, and autosomal differences involved eight centric fusion rearrangements. Five centric fusions were each unique to a particular taxon: 3;10 (K. leche), 3;11 and 6;29 (K. kob), and 5;17 and 7;11 (K. ellipsiprymnus). The 4;7 fusion occurred in K. leche and K. megaceros, whereas the 5;13 fusion occurred in K. kob and K. leche; the 6;18 fusion was found in three species but was absent in K. kob. Differences between the X chromosomes of the four Kobus species were attributed to heterochromatic additions or deletions, and Y-chromosome differences may have been the result of pericentric inversion. G-banded karyotypes of putative K. l. leche and K. l. kafuensis appeared identical, as did C-banded karyotypes of the two subspecies. Karyotypes of K. e. ellipsiprymnus and K. e. defassa differed as a result of the 6;18 centric fusion, which was polymorphic in K. e. defassa, and the 7;11 centric fusion, which was polymorphic in K. e. ellipsiprymnus but absent in K. e. defassa. Several centric fusions were related by monobrachial chain-IV complexes; however, records of hybridization indicate that reproductive isolation between at least certain species of Kobus is incomplete. Karyotypic differences between K. ellipsiprymnus (including K. e. ellipsiprymnus and K. e. defassa), K. kob, K. leche, and K. megaceros support the validity of these taxa, as well as the need to manage them as separate populations.   

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