Several repetitive DNA fragments were generated from PCR amplifications of caribou DNA using primer sequences derived from the white-tailed deer satellite II DNA clone OvDII. Two fragments, designated Rt-0.5 and Rt-0.7, were sequenced and found to have 96% sequence similarity. These caribou clones also had 85% sequence similarity with OvDII. Multiple-colored fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with satellite I and satellite II DNA probes to caribou metaphase chromosomes and extended chromatin fibers provided direct visualization of the genomic organization of these two satellite DNA families, with the following findings: (1) Cervid satellite I DNA is confined to the centromeric regions of the acrocentric autosomes, whereas satellite II DNA is found at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes except for the Y. (2) For most acrocentric chromosomes, the satellite I signal appeared to be medially located at the primary constriction, in contrast to that of satellite II, which appeared to be oriented toward the lateral sides as two separate fluorescent dots. (3) The satellite II clone Rt-0.7 appeared to be enriched in the centromeric region of the caribou X chromosome, a pair of biarmed autosomes, and a number of other acrocentric autosomes. (4) Fiber-FISH demonstrated that the satellite I and satellite II arrays were juxtaposed. On highly extended chromatin fibers, the total length of the hybridization signals for the two satellite DNA arrays often reached 300–400 μm. The length of a given satellite II array usually reached 200 μm, corresponding to 2 × 103 kb of DNA in a given centromere.   

Barry AE, Howman EV, Cancilla MR, Saffery R, Choo KH: Sequence analysis of an 80-kb human an alphoid neocentromere DNA. Hum molec Genet 8:217–227 (1999).
Bogenberger JM, Neitzel H, Fittler F: A highly repetitive DNA component common to all Cervidae: its organization and chromosomal distribution during evolution. Chromosoma 95:154–161 (1987).
Buckland RA: Comparative structure and evolution of goat and sheep satellite II DNAs. Nucl Acids Res 11:1349–1360 (1983).
Buckland RA: Sequence and evolution of related bovine and caprine satellite DNAs. J molec Biol 186:25–30 (1985).
Buckland RA, Elder JK: On the mechanism of amplification of satellite II DNA sequences of the domestic goat Capra hircus. J molec Biol 186:12–23 (1985).
D’Aiuto L, Barsanti P, Mauro S, Cserpan I, Lanave C, Ciccarese S: Physical relationship between satellite I and II DNA in centromeric regions of sheep chromosomes. Chrom Res 5:375–381 (1997).
Eichler EE: Repetitive conundrums of centromere structure and function. Hum molec Genet 8:151–155 (1999).
Elder FFB, Hsu TC: Tandem fusions in the evolution of mammalian chromosomes, in Sandberg AA (ed): The Cytogenetics of Mammalian Autosomal Rearrangement, pp 481–506 (Alan R Liss, New York 1988).
Haaf T, Ward DC: Structural analysis of α-satellite DNA and centromere proteins using extended chromatin and chromosomes. Hum molec Genet 3:697–709 (1994).
Harrington JJ, Van Bokkelen G, Mays RW, Gustashaw K, Willard HF: Formation of de novo centromeres and construction of first-generation human artificial microchromosomes. Nature Genet 15:345–355 (1997).
Ikeno M, Grimes B, Okazaki T, Nakano M, Saitoh K, Hoshino H, McGill NI, Cooke H, Masumoto H: Construction of YAC-based mammalian artificial chromosomes. Nature Biotechnol 16:431–439 (1998).
Karpen GH, Allshire RC: The case for epigenetic effects on centromere identity and function. Trends Genet 13:489–496 (1997).
Kurnit D, Shafit B, Maio J: Multiple satellite deoxyribonucleic acids in the calf and their relation to the sex chromosome. J molec Biol 81:273–284 (1973).
Lee C, Court DR, Cho C, Haslett J, Lin CC: Higher-order organization of subrepeats and the evolution of cervid satellite I DNA. J molec Evol 44:327–335 (1997).
Lee C, Lin CC: Conservation of a 31-bp bovine subrepeat in centromeric satellite DNA monomers of Cervus elaphus and other cervid species. Chrom Res 4:427–435 (1996).
Lee C, Ritchie DBC, Lin CC: A tandemly repetitive, centromeric DNA sequence from the Canadian woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou): its conservation and evolution in several deer species. Chrom Res 2:293–306 (1994).
Lee C, Sasi R, Lin CC: Interstitial localization of telomeric DNA sequences in the Indian muntjac chromosomes: further evidence for tandem chromosome fusions in the karyotypic evolution of the Asian muntjacs. Cytogenet Cell Genet 63:156–159 (1993).
Lee C, Stanyon R, Lin CC, Ferguson-Smith MA: Conservation of human gamma-X centromeric satellite DNA among primates with an autosomal localization in certain Old World monkeys. Chrom Res 7:43–47 (1999).
Li YC, Lee C, Sanoudou D, Hsu TH, Li SY, Lin CC: Interstitial colocalization of two cervid satellites DNAs involved in the genesis of the Indian muntjac karyotype. Chrom Res (2000, in press).
Lin CC, Sasi R, Fan Y-S, Chen Z-Q: New evidence for tandem chromosome fusions in the karyotypic evolution of Asian muntjacs. Chromosoma 102:333–339 (1991).
Maniatis T, Fritsch EF, Sambrook J: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor 1982).
Matsuda Y, Chapman VM: In situ analysis of centromeric satellite DNA segregating in Mus species crosses. Mammal Genome 1:71–77 (1991).
Miller J, Hindkjaer J, Thomsen P: A chromosomal basis for the differential organization of a porcine centromere-specific repeat. Cytogenet Cell Genet 62:37–41 (1993).
Neitzel H: Chromosome evolution of Cervidae: karyotypic and molecular aspects, in Obe G, Basler A (eds): Cytogenetics, pp 90–112 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York 1987).
Plucienniczak A, Skowronski J, Jaworski J: Nucleotide sequence of bovine 1.715 satellite DNA and its relation to other bovine satellite sequences. J molec Biol 158:293–304 (1982).
Qureshi SA, Blake RD: Sequence characteristics of a cervid DNA repeat family. J molec Evol 40:400–404 (1995).
Sart D du, Cancilla MR, Earle E, Mao JI, Saffery R, Tainton KM, Kalitsis P, Martyn J, Barry AE, Choo KH: A functional neocentromere formed through activation of a latent human centromere and consisting of non-alpha-satellite DNA. Nature Genet 16:144–153 (1997).
Scherthan H: Characterization of a tandem repetitive sequence cloned from the deer Capreolus capreolus and its chromosomal localization in two muntjac species. Hereditas 115:43–49 (1991).
Shi L, Ye Y, Duan X: Comparative cytogenetic studies on the red muntjac, Chinese muntjac and their F1 hybrids. Cytogenet Cell Genet 26:22–27 (1980).
Shiels C, Coutelle C, Huxley C: Contiguous assays of satellites 1, 3, and β form a 1.5-Mb domain on chromosome 22p. Genomics 44:35–44 (1997).
Tanaka K, Matsuda Y, Masangkay JS, Solis CD, Anunciado RV, Namikawa T: Characterization and chromosomal distribution of satellite DNA sequences of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Hered 90:418–422 (1999).
Tyler-Smith C, Corish P, Burns E: Neocentromeres, the Y chromosome and centromere evolution. Chrom Res 6:65–67 (1998).
Vafa O, Shelby RD, Sullivan KF: CENP-A associated complex satellite DNA in the kinetochore of the Indian muntjac. Chromosoma 108:367–374 (1999).
Willard HF, Waye JS: Hierarchical order in chromosome-specific human alpha satellite DNA. Trends Genet 3:192–198 (1987).
Wong A, Biddle F, Rattner JB: The chromosomal distribution of the major and minor satellite is not conserved in the genus Mus. Chromosoma 99:190–195 (1990).
Wurster DH, Benirschke K: Indian muntjac, Muntiacus muntjak: a deer with a low diploid chromosome number. Science 168:1364–1366 (1970).
Yang F, O’Brien PCM, Wienberg J, Ferguson-Smith MA: A reappraisal of the tandem fusion theory of karyotype evolution in the Indian muntjac using chromosome painting. Chrom Res 5:109–117 (1997a).
Yang F, O’Brien PCM, Wienberg J, Neitzel H, Lin CC, Ferguson-Smith MA: Chromosomal evolution of the Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi). Chromosoma 106:37–43 (1997b).
Yu LC, Lowensteiner D, Wong EFK, Sawada I, Mazrimas J, Schmid C: Localization and characterization of recombinant DNA clones derived from the highly repetitive DNA sequences in the Indian muntjac cells: their presence in the Chinese muntjac. Chromosoma 93:521–528 (1986).
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.