Comparative cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to track structural rearrangements in the X chromosomes of two African antelope species, the eland (Taurotragus oryx; tribe Tragelaphini) and the suni (Neotragus moschatus; tribe Neotragini). Using two microdissected cattle chromosome painting probes (one specific for Xp-containing sequences corresponding to Xp24→p12 of the cattle X, and one specific for Xq-containing sequences corresponding to Xq12→qter), we show that intrachromosomal rearrangements distinguish the X chromosomes of these species. Furthermore, there is clear evidence that, superimposed on this background of intrachromosomal evolutionary change, the sequences contained in the cattle Xp painting probe appear to have moved as a complete unit during the repatteming of the bovid X. Although we are unable to infer the order of the rearranged chromosomal segments, given the large regions of homology detected by the chromosome paints, we nonetheless believe that this approach (combining conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies on the X chromosome) will prove useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships in the family Bovidae, particularly as more probes become available.

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