In dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), although most wild types are gonochoristic diploids that are genetically differentiated into 2 groups, A and B, clonal lineages appear in certain localities. Clonal loaches have been considered to have hybrid origins between the 2 groups by a series of genetic studies. In this study, using FISH with a newly developed probe (ManDra-A), we identified 26 (1 pair of metacentric and 12 pairs of telocentric chromosomes) of 50 diploid chromosomes in contemporary wild-type group A loach. In contrast, ManDra-A signals were not detected on metacentric chromosomes derived from the ancestral group A of clonal loach. The FISH results clearly showed the presence of certain differentiations in metacentric chromosomes between ancestral and contemporary group A loach. Two-color FISH with ManDra-A and group B-specific ManDra (renamed ManDra-B) probes reconfirmed the hybrid origin of clones by identifying chromosomes from both groups A and B in metaphases. Our results showed the hybrid origin of clonally reproducing fish and the possibility that chromosomal differentiation between ancestral and contemporary fish can affect gametogenesis. In meiotic spermatocytes of sex-reversed clones, ManDra-A, and not ManDra-B, signals were detected in 12 out of 50 bivalents. Thus, the results further support the previous conclusion that clonal gametogenesis was assured by pairing between sister chromosomes duplicated from each ancestral chromosome from group A or B. Our study deepens the knowledge about the association between clonality and hybridity in unisexual vertebrates.

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