Proechimys species are remarkable for their extensive chromosome rearrangements, representing a good model to understand genome evolution. Herein, we cytogenetically analyzed 3 different cytotypes of Proechimys gr. goeldii to assess their evolutionary relationship. We also mapped the transposable element SINE-B1 on the chromosomes of P. gr. goeldii in order to investigate its distribution among individuals and evaluate its possible contribution to karyotype remodeling in this species. SINE-B1 showed a dispersed distribution along chromosome arms and was also detected at the pericentromeric regions of some chromosomes, including pair 1 and the sex chromosomes, which are involved in chromosome rearrangements. In addition, we describe a new cytotype for P. gr. goeldii, reinforcing the significant role of gross chromosomal rearrangements during the evolution of the genus. The results of FISH with SINE-B1 suggest that this issue should be more deeply investigated for a better understanding of its role in the mechanisms involved in the wide variety of Proechimys karyotypes.