In an attempt to analyze the organization of repetitive DNAs in the amphibian genome, 7 microsatellite motifs and a 5S rDNA sequence were synthesized and mapped in the karyotypes of 5 Amolops species. The results revealed nonrandom distribution of the microsatellite repeats, usually in the heterochromatic regions, as found in other organisms. These microsatellite repeats showed rapid changes among Amolops species, documenting the recent evolutionary history within this lineage. In contrast, 5S rDNA was localized in chromosomes 5 of all species, suggesting that these chromosomes are homologous within the monophyletic clade. Furthermore, the heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes (chromosomes 5) of A.mantzorum, had identical patterns of 5S rDNA, indicating that the subtelocentric Y resulted from a pericentric inversion. Several microsatellite repeats were found in the heteromorphic sex chromosomes, verifying the association of repetitive DNAs with sex chromosome differentiation in A. mantzorum.