In the present paper, karyotypes of 7 Japanese Podismini species, Anapodisma beybienkoi, Fruhstorferiola okinawaensis, Parapodisma caelestis, P. mikado, P. setouchiensis, P. tenryuensis, and Sinopodisma punctata (2n♂ = 21, all acrocentric), are described and compared on the basis of conventional (C-banding, DAPI/CMA3-staining, Ag-NOR) and molecular (FISH with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes) cytogenetic staining methods. This is the first study to report karyotypes of A. beybienkoi and P. caelestis. Differential staining techniques showed karyotypic diversity in these species. The number of 18S rDNA signals ranged from 2 to 6, and the signals were located on the autosomes or sex chromosomes. In all species, clusters of rDNA coincided with Ag-NORs. Telomeric signals occurred at the chromosome ends at the pachytene stage and seldom at other stages of meiosis. Paracentromeric and some distal and interstitial blocks of constitutive heterochromatin were detected in the chromosomes of Anapodisma, Fruhstorferiola, and Parapodisma species. Staining with DAPI and CMA3 revealed 2 groups of heterochromatin composition. In addition, intraspecific differences in the number of rDNA clusters and C-bands were observed within Parapodisma species. Based on the evidence of cytogenetic characteristics, the monophyly of Tonkinacridina cannot be supported.

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